PyObjC protocol support


Apple makes use of both formal and informal protocols in the Cocoa framework. Formal protocols are those protocols that are implemented using Objective-C protocols:

@protocol NSFoo <NSSomeProtocol>

Conforming to a formal protocol requires the interface of a class to explicitly declare that it implements that protocol, and the implementation must implement all required methods of the protocol.

Informal protocols are defined as categories on NSObject with no implementation:

@interface NSObject(FooDelegate)

Conforming to an informal protocol is much like conforming to a protocol in Python, the class simply implements the methods as documented. In most cases, informal protocols are comprised entirely of optional methods (i.e. NSApplicationDelegate) and a check is made (i.e. -[NSObject respondsToSelector:]) before sending the message to the target.

Informal protocols and PyObjC

PyObjC has an explicit representation for informal protocols. This makes it possible to use the protocol description to provide better error messages and to automatically deduce the method signatures for classes that implement an informal protocol.

Informal protocols are represented using instances of objc.informal_protocol. Instances of this class are added to a internal registration in the bridge, and are automatically used when a new class is declared. Because of this classes don’t have to declare that they conform to an informal protocol.

Formal protocols and PyObjC

PyObjC also has an explicit representation for formal protocols.

Formal protocols are represented as instances of objc.formal_protocol. Unlike informal protocols, it is necessary to explicitly declare conformance to formal protocols. However, all formal protocols in Cocoa are also described using objc.informal_protocol objects.

Protocol conformance is declared by using a protocols keyword to the class definitions:

1    NSLocking = objc.protocolNamed('NSLocking')
3    class MyLockingObject(NSObject, protocols=[NSLocking]):
4            def lock(self):
5                    pass
7            def unlock(self):
8                    pass

Alternatively, it is also possible to specify the protocols that the class conforms to using an attribute named __pyobjc_protocols__ in the class body.

 1    NSLocking = objc.protocolNamed('NSLocking')
 3    class MyLockingObject(NSObject):
 4            __pyobjc_protocols__ = [NSLocking]
 6            def lock(self):
 7                    pass
 9            def unlock(self):
10                    pass

The class now formally implements the NSLocking protocol, this can be verified using the Objective-C introspection methods:

>>> MyLockingObject.pyobjc_classMethods.conformsToProtocol_(NSLocking)

This is useful for API’s that require (and check) the implementation of formal protocols.