What’s new in PyObjC

An overview of the relevant changes in new, and older, releases.

Version 10.3

  • The release contains binary wheels for Python 3.13

    PyObjC does at this time not support the experimental free threading support in Python 3.13.

  • #569: Removed the workaround for a bug in Xcode 15.0

    The workaround is no longer necessary, and caused problems when building with the Command Line Tools development tools from Apple.

  • Updated SDK bindings for macOS 14.5

  • A minor change in the (currently private) tooling I use for collecting the raw metadata resulted in minor fixes to the framework bindings, in particular for metadata for a number of block and function typed arguments and return values.

  • #275: It is now possible to create instances of Objective-C classes by calling the class, e.g. NSObject() instead of NSObject.alloc().init().

    The implementation of __new__ forwards calls to the underlying SomeClass.alloc().init...() pattern. In particular, all public init methods are translated into sets of keyword arguments:

    • Remove init or initWith from the start of the selector name

    • Lowercase the first character of what’s left over

    • The strings before colons are acceptable keywords, in that order

    For example, given a selector initWithX:y: the __new__ method will accept x, y as keyword arguments, in that order.

    Framework bindings have been updated with additional metadata to support this pattern, and the sets of keyword arguments are automatically calculated for subclasses in written in Python.

    The limitation on the order of keyword arguments may be lifted in a future version, it is currently present to keep the code closer to the Objective-C spelling which should make it easier to look up documentation on Apple’s website.

  • For some Objective-C classes some of the init and new methods are not available even if they are available in super classes. Those methods are marked with NS_UNAVAILABLE in Apple’s headers.

    As of this version these methods are also not available in Python code, trying to call them will result in an exception.

    To make methods unavailable in Python classes set these methods to None, e.g.:


    class MyObject(NSObject):

    init = None # NS_UNAVAILABLE


  • Added objc.registerUnavailableMethod(), objc.registerNewKeywordsFromSelector() and objc.registerNewKeywords() to support the generic __new__ in framework bindings.

    A limitation for registerUnavailableMethod is that it is currently not supported to reintroduce the method in a subclass, primarily because that functionality is not needed for framework bindings.

  • Instantiating an Objective-C class by calling the class (e.g. invoking __new__) will not call __init__ even if one is defined.

    The implementation of a subclass of NSObject should always follow the Objective-C convention for initializing using one or more methods with a name starting with init.

    This can affect code that manually defines a __new__ method for an Objective-C class, in previous versions that was the only way to create instances in a Pythontic way.

  • NSArray, NSMutableArray, NSSet and NSMutableSet accepted a sequence keyword argument in previous versions. This is no longer supported.

    It is still supported to create instances using a positional argument for a sequence, e.g. NSArray([1, 2, 3]).

  • NSData, NSMutableData, NSDecimal, NSString and NSMutableString

    accepted a value keyword argument in previous versions. This is no longer supported.

    It is still supported to create instances using a positional argument, e.g. NSData(b"hello").

  • NSDictionary and NSMutableDictionary do not support the generic new interface because this conflicts with having a similar interface to dict for creating instances.

    That is, NSDictionary(a=4, b=5) is the same as NSDictionary({"a":4, "b":5}), and not like NSDictionary.alloc().initWithA_b_(4, 5).

Version 10.2.1

  • Fix possible memory corruption in the implementation of forwardInvocation: for Python classes.

  • Fix build error when building with a python configured with --with-pydebug.

  • Don’t override tp_dealloc slot in objc.super but use the one inherited from super. This makes sure construction and deallocation are consistent with each other (found while testing with --with-pydebug).

  • Fix deprecation warning while compiling pyobjc-framework-Quartz.

Version 10.2

  • Fix a number of warnings found by adding -Wpendantic to the CFLAGS for pyobjc-core

  • Fix undefined behaviour warnings:

    • Suppress the undefined behaviour warning about out of range values in double to (unsigned) long long in the OC_PythonNumber implementation as these are unavoidable when matching NSNumber behaviour.

    • Switch to using memcpy instead of direct assignment in converting plain C values to/from Python because “packed” structs might result in accessing values through unaligned pointers.

  • Updated bindings for the macOS 14.4 SDK (Xcode 15.3)

  • Added bindings for the “BrowserEngineKit” framework on macOS 14.4 or later.

  • Add obj.registerPathType() to register a Python type as a path like type with PyObjC. By default only pathlib.Path is registered as such.

    A minor backward compatibility issue is that instances of the registered types will be written to NSArchive and NSKeyArchive archives as instances of NSURL and won’t roundtrip back to the original Python type. This might change in future versions of PyObjC, at least for pathlib.Path.

  • #589: Instances of pathlib.Path (and other types registered with objc.registerPathType) are bridged into Objective-C as instances of NSURL.

    This means that these types can be used as values passed to APIs expecting a filesystem URL, e.g.:


    path = pathlib.Path(“/Applications/Numbers.app”) bundle = NSBundle.bundleWithURL_(path) ```

  • Fix some warnings in pyobjc-core when testing with Python 3.13a4.

  • Add support for NSBezierPathElementQuadraticCurveTo in NSBezierPath.elementAtIndex_associatedPoints_.

  • #595: Fix compilation error in pyobjc-framework-Cocoa with a recent deployment target.

Version 10.1

  • Upgrade framework bindings for the macOS 14.2 SDK

  • #579: Make sure the install.py and develop.py scripts in the repository work when run out of tree.

  • #577: os.fspath(someURL) will not work with Cocoa URLs (NSURL, CFURLRef) that refer to local filesystem paths. TypeError will be raised for other URLs.

    This enables using regular Python filesystem APIs with URLs that refer to local filesystem paths.

  • #572: Fix compilation issue when building on macOS 13 or earlier

  • Fix build error on ancient macOS versions where clang doesn’t support -flto=thin.

  • Add a workaround for a crash in pyobjc-core when running the testsuite on macOS 10.14.

  • Fix some issues found while running the testsuite on macOS 10.9 to macOS 13, instead of only testing on the latest macOS version. Most issues found where problems in the testsuite itself, but not all.

    Some of the changes skip tests on older macOS versions (10.12, 10.13 and 10.14) due to running into what appears to be crashing platform bugs.

  • #581: Fix dependencies between framework binding packages

  • Fix build error with the current Python 3.13 alpha release (3.13a2).

Version 10.0

  • Update bindings for macOS 14

    Symbols newly introduced in macOS 14 were added to the existing bindings, and the following new bindings were introduced:

    • Cinematic

    • MediaExtension

    • SensitiveContentAnalysis

    • Symbols

  • The “IMServicePlugIn” bindings are no longer available

    The entire framework was deprecated in macOS 10.13 and removed in macOS 14. The bindings can not be build using the latest SDK, and had (at best) limited use.

  • #542: PyObjC 10 requires Python 3.8 and no longer supports Python 3.7

  • #547: Removed all MAC_OS_X_VERSION* constants from objc.

    These constants are needed in practice (switch to objc.available() to check for platform availability), and caused unnecessary code churn.

  • The value for objc.options.deprecation_warnings is now a string instead of an integer.

  • #555: Fix unintended incompatibility with pytest in PyObjCTools.TestSupport

  • #295: The lazy loading machinery by default no longer uses objc.ObjCLazyModule, but uses module level __dir__ and __getattr__ instead. The class objc.ObjCLazyModule is still available, but is deprecated

    As a side effect of this objc is no longer an attribute of framework binding packages (e.g Foundation.objc is no longer a valid attribute).

    Another side effect of this is that all attributes added by the import system are now correctly present in the packages for framework bindings.

    And a final side effect is that private symbols (prefixed with underscore) are no longer imported from dependencies of framework bindings (more closely matching the from dependency import * behaviour that the lazy importer emulates.

  • Add attribute __framework_identifier__ to all framework bindings with the identifier of the corresponding system framework.

  • #295: Introduce objc.createFrameworkDirAndGetattr() to create module level __dir__ and __getattr__ for use by framework bindings.

  • #561: Tests now validate the bundle identifier value used in framework bindings.

    This resulted in a number of changes to framework bindings with incorrect bundle identifier values. This shouldn’t affect user code because the bundle loader falls back on the framework path when the identifier cannot be found.

  • #559: Avoid test failures in pyobjc-core when pyobjc-framework-Quartz is not installed.

  • A number of classes can no longer be subclasses in Python because they are marked as non-subclassable in the macOS 14 SDK (either directly or as “subclassing is deprecated”:

    CKAllowedSharingOptions, CKAsset, CKContainer, CKDatabase, CKDatabaseNotification, CKDatabaseSubscription, CKFetchRecordZoneChangesConfiguration, CKNotification, CKNotificationID, CKNotificationInfo, CKOperationConfiguration, CKOperationGroup, CKQuery, CKQueryCursor, CKQueryNotification, CKQuerySubscription, CKRecord, CKRecordID, CKRecordZone, CKRecordZoneID, CKRecordZoneNotification, CKRecordZoneSubscription, CKReference, CKServerChangeToken, CKShare, CKShareMetadata, CKShareParticipant, CKSubscription, CKSyncEngine, CKSyncEngineAccountChangeEvent, CKSyncEngineConfiguration, CKSyncEngineDidFetchChangesEvent, CKSyncEngineDidFetchRecordZoneChangesEvent, CKSyncEngineDidSendChangesEvent, CKSyncEngineEvent, CKSyncEngineFailedRecordSave, CKSyncEngineFailedZoneSave, CKSyncEngineFetchChangesOptions, CKSyncEngineFetchedDatabaseChangesEvent, CKSyncEngineFetchedRecordDeletion, CKSyncEngineFetchedRecordZoneChangesEvent, CKSyncEngineFetchedZoneDeletion, CKSyncEnginePendingDatabaseChange, CKSyncEnginePendingRecordZoneChange, CKSyncEnginePendingZoneDelete, CKSyncEnginePendingZoneSave, CKSyncEngineRecordZoneChangeBatch, CKSyncEngineSendChangesContext, CKSyncEngineSendChangesOptions, CKSyncEngineSentDatabaseChangesEvent, CKSyncEngineSentRecordZoneChangesEvent, CKSyncEngineState, CKSyncEngineStateSerialization, CKSyncEngineStateUpdateEvent, CKSyncEngineWillFetchChangesEvent, CKSyncEngineWillFetchRecordZoneChangesEvent, CKSyncEngineWillSendChangesEvent, CKSystemSharingUIObserver, CKUserIdentity, CKUserIdentityLookupInfo.

  • The encoding of a number of basic types changes, in particular those of CoreFoundation struct types and SIMD struct types. None of this should affect user code.

  • objc.getClassList now has an optional positional argument to ignore classes with a name that aren’t identifiers.

  • Some of the functionality in CoreFoundation was rewritten in Swift in macOS 14, with Swift subclasses of NSArray and NSDictionary. Those classes break an invariant of PyObjC: the superclass of the root of the Swift class hierarchy changes when the class is instantiated for the first time (from NSObject to the correct superclass).

    PyObjC 10 contains a workaround for this by ignoring these classes unless they are needed to create a proxy for an instance (FB12286520).

  • Fix crash when the method signature retrieved from the Objective-C runtime contains the class name for a method returning id.

  • Remove old 32-bit support in metadata override files.

  • Restructure objc.simd: The matrix types are now named simd_float3x3 instead of matrix_float3x3, with the older name as an alias (to match older system headers).

  • Fix crash when loading the libdispatch bindings on recent macOS versions (at least macOS 13, possibly earlier)

  • dispatch.dispatch_source_t is renamed to dispatch.dispatch_source_type_t to match the type name in C code.

  • #569: Xcode 15 has a bug when using weak symbols and targeting older macOS versions. Switch to the old linker when detecting Xcode 15.

Version 9.2.1

  • #563: Fix incompatibility with macOS 14 beta 1

Version 9.2

  • #549: Added warning objc.ObjCSuperWarning that is used to warn about classes that use argument-less super without binding that name to objc.super.

    The correct code pattern is:

    from Foundation import NSObject
    from objc import super
    class MyObject(NSObject):
        def init(self):
            self = super().init()
            if self is None:
                return None
            return self
  • #549: Document that objc.super must be used instead of builtin.super when calling superclass methods in a Cocoa subclass.

    See the documentation for more details.

  • #550: Add minimal pyproject.toml to all subprojects

    Recent versions of pip give a deprecation warning for projects without a pyproject.toml, and version 23.1 enabled the pyproject.toml backend by default. Add a minimal pyproject.toml to get a consistent build regardless of the version of pip

  • #551: Fix crash in pyobjc-core when using Python 3.12a7.

  • #449: Added explicit tests for dealing with Objective-C categories that are loaded while using classes from Python.

  • #552: Fix the version of macOS where the SafariServices framework is present.

  • #552: Fixed some issues found by testing on a macOS 10.11 system

  • Trying to implement a method with SIMD types as arguments or return value will now give a more useful error when the bridge does not support the signature.

  • #554: Fix incomplete metadata for CoreMediaIO.CMIOObjectSetPropertyData

  • Fix incorrect metadata for xpc.xpc_uuid_create, xpc.xpc_dictionary_set_uuid , xpc.xpc_array_set_uuid, JavaScriptCore.JSObjectMakeDeferredPromise, JavaScriptCore.JSValueIsEqual, JavaScriptCore.JSValueIsInstanceOfConstructor, JavaScriptCore.JSValueCreateJSONString, JavaScriptCore.JSValueToNumber, JavaScriptCore.JSValueToStringCopy, JavaScriptCore.JSValueToObject, Quartz.CGImageCreateWithJPEGDataProvider, Quartz.CGImageCreateWithPNGDataProvider, Quartz.CGImageMaskCreate, Quartz.CVBufferCopyAttachment, Quartz.CVMetalTextureCacheCreate, Quartz.CVMetalTextureCacheCreateFromImage, Quartz.CVOpenGLTextureCacheCreate, CoreMedia.CMAudioClockCreate, CoreMedia.CMAudioFormatDescriptionCreate, CoreMedia.CMBlockBufferGetDataPointer, CoreMedia.CMBlockBufferAccessDataBytes, CoreMedia.CMBlockBufferGetDataPointer, CoreMedia.CMAudioFormatDescriptionGetMostCompatibleFormat, CoreMedia.CMAudioFormatDescriptionGetRichestDecodableFormat, CoreMedia.CMSampleBufferCreateWithMakeDataReadyHandler, CoreMedia.CMSampleBufferCreateForImageBufferWithMakeDataReadyHandler, CFNetwork.CFNetServiceBrowserSearchForDomains, CFNetwork.CFNetServiceBrowserStopSearch, CFNetwork.CFNetServiceMonitorStop, CFNetwork.CFNetServiceRegister, CFNetwork.CFNetServiceResolve, CoreText.CTFontCreateCopyWithSymbolicTraits, CoreText.CTFontCreateCopyWithFamily, CoreText.CTFontCreateCopyWithAttributes, CoreMIDI.MIDISourceCreateWithProtocol, CoreMIDI.MIDISourceCreate, CoreMIDI.MIDISetupCreate, CoreMIDI.MIDIDestinationCreate, CoreMIDI.MIDIClientCreate, CoreMIDI.MIDIClientCreateWithBlock, CoreMIDI.MIDIOutputPortCreate, CoreMIDI.MIDIObjectGetStringProperty, CoreMIDI.MIDIObjectGetProperties, CoreMIDI.MIDIObjectGetIntegerProperty, CoreMIDI.MIDIObjectGetDictionaryProperty, CoreMIDI.MIDIObjectGetDataProperty, CoreMIDI.MIDIObjectFindByUniqueID, CoreMIDI.MIDIDestinationCreateWithProtocol, CoreMIDI.MIDIEndpointGetEntity, CoreMIDI.MIDIEntityGetDevice, CoreMIDI.MIDIEntityGetRefCons, CoreMIDI.MIDIEntitySetRefCons, DVDPlayback.DVDRegisterEventCallBack, DiskArbitration.DADiskMountWithArguments, GameController.NSDataFromGCExtendedGamepadSnapShotDataV100, HealthKit.HKAppleWalkingSteadinessClassificationForQuantity, IOSurface.IOSurfaceSetPurgeable, Network.nw_ethernet_channel_send,

  • Removed Quartz.CGColorConversionInfoCreateFromListWithArguments. This function was already documented as unsupported, but was still present in the framework wrapper.

  • Removed Quartz.CVPixelBufferCreateWithPlanarBytes. This function requires a manual binding, but was still present with a generic (and non-working) binding.

  • Removed CoreMedia.CMBufferQueueCreate, CoreMedia.CMBufferQueueGetCallbacksForSampleBuffersSortedByOutputPTS, CoreMedia.CMBufferQueueGetCallbacksForUnsortedSampleBuffers, CoreMedia.CMVideoFormatDescriptionGetH264ParameterSetAtIndex, CoreMedia.CMVideoFormatDescriptionGetHVECParameterSetAtIndex, These functions require a manual binding, but were still present with a generic (and non-working) binding.

  • Explicitly exclude definitions from CMIOHardwarePlugIn.h from the CoreMediaIO bindings.

  • Added deref_result_pointer key to the metadata for a return value. Use this when a callable returns a pointer to a single value (for example CMAudioFormatDescriptionGetMostCompatibleFormat)

  • Removed unsupported functions from the ApplicationServices bindings (not named individually due to the size of the list). Also fixed annotations for other ApplicationServices bindings.

  • Add manual binding for CFNetwork.CFNetServiceBrowserCreate, CFNetwork.CFNetServiceSetClient, and CFNetwork.CFNetServiceMonitorCreate.

  • Fix incompatibility with Python 3.12 beta 1.


    Due to changes to the bytecode compiler the bridge will (incorrectly) deduce that a method does not return a value (void return in Objective-C) when a method only contains return None statements and no return statements that return some other value (expressions or constants).

    That is the following method is implied to return id for Python 3.11 or earlier, but is implied to return void in Python 3.12.

    def mymethod(self):
        return None

Version 9.1.1

  • #548: Fix unexpected error when using mix-in classes

Version 9.1

  • Fix handling python_method(native_selector) when assigning to a class attribute. That is, the following was broken in 9.1b1:

    import Foundation, objc
    NSArray.makeArray = objc.python_method(NSArray.arrayWithArray_)
  • #535: Reverted ome of the speedups in assertCallableMetadataIsSane

    A new sanity check required reverting some of the speedups in assertCallableMetadataIsSane.

Version 9.1b1

This is a fairly large larger update due to rewriting part of the core logic in Python (where the previous version used C). This does result in some minor semantic changes, but those should only affect edge cases and not normal user code.

These changes were done because it simplifies the code base, and makes it easier to evolve the code (which has already led to a number of easy-of-use improvements as described below).

  • #306: The code that converts a Python callable into an objc.selector when creating an Objective-C class is now written in Python instead of Objective-C.

    Note that the interface that the C extension uses to invoke Python code is not a public API and can change in minor releases.

    The rewrite found a number of edge cases where the older implementation in C was incorrect or inconsistent. Those problems have been fixed as part of this effort (see below for details).

  • The BadPrototypeError raised when a method is not compatible with number of arguments expected by Objective-C now mentions the number of arguments excluding the “self” argument, instead of including it.

  • The new code will accept callables other than functions and bound method as a possible source of objc.selector objects, this can affect code storing a callable object (other than types) as a class attribute.

    Wrap these in an objc.python_method to avoid conversion.

  • Added objc_objc_method that can be used to decorate functions that must be converted to an objc.selector. The decorator has optional keyword arguments to affect the conversion.

  • objc.python_method is now implemented in Python.

    The callable attribute is deprecated, use __wrapped__ instead to access the wrapped callable.

    The new implementation requires that the wrapped value is either a callable or a classmethod and won’t work with arbitrary values.

  • Coroutines (generators, async method) are no longer wrapped in an objc.selector by default.

  • Using a callable that’s not compatible with use a selector due to having the wrong number of positional arguments or having keyword-only arguments will now raise consistently during class construction.

  • objc.python_method is now implemewnted in Python. Due to the reimplementation the callable attribute has been renamed to the more standard __wrapped__ attribute.

  • For native selectors the signature attribute no longer contains the raw signature, but a cleaned up copy.

  • Added private function to look for an informal protocol related to a selector name.

  • Added private function to look registered metadata for a selector name.

  • PEP-8 compatible multi-word method names are no longer converted to selectors, e.g.:

    class MyObject(NSObject):
       def some_method(self, a, b):

    In previous versions this required using the @objc.python_method decorator.

  • Method names containing double underscores are no longer converted to selectors, e.g:

    class MyObject(NSObject):
      def spam__(self, a, b):
      def spam__ham_(self, a, b, c):

    In previous versions these were converted to, nonsensical, selectors: spam:: and spam::ham:.

  • Introduce a new optional subkey in __metadata__(): full_signature contains the complete signature for a method.

  • Setting dunder names in a class will no longer create a selector:

    def __dir__(self):
        return []
    NSObject.__dir__ = __dir__

    In PyObjC 9.0 or earlier this resulted in a new selector on NSObject, in PyObjC 9.1 this results a new Python-only method.

    This matches the behaviour of defining dunder methods in a class definition.

  • Wrapping a python_method in a classmethod now works:

    class MyClass(NSObject):
        def spam_spam(self):
  • Method definitions with varargs are now accepted for selectors when the number of arguments expected in Objective-C “fits”:

    class MyClass(NSObject):
       def correctMethod_(self, *args):
           # Args will be a 1-tuple when called
           # from Objective-C
       def correctMethod2_(self, value, *args):
           # 'args' will always be empty when
           # called from Objective-C
       def incorrectMethod2_(self, value, value2, *args):
           # Objective-C will pass exactly one argument,
           # this method needs at least 2.
  • If a python class overrides a method in the superclass it will now use the selector of the superclass method instead of defaulting to a transformation of the method name.

    class SuperClass(NSObject):
        def pressed(self):
    class SubClass(SuperClass):
        def pressed(self):

    In previous versions of PyObjC SubClass.pressed would have been a selector with name b"pressed", in PyObjC 9.1 the selector name is inherited from the super class (b"buttonPressed:").

  • Subclassing an NSCoder has an incompatible change. In previous version of PyObjC the “at” argument for, for example -[NSCoder decodeValueOfObjCType:at:] was not passed to Python, e.g.:

    class MyCoder(NSCoder):
        def decodeValueOfObjCType_at_(self, encoding):

    As of PyObjC 9.1 the “at” argument must be present in the the python argument list, and will always be passed None:

    class MyCoder(NSCoder):
        def decodeValueOfObjCType_at_(self, encoding, at):

    The same is also true for -[NSCoder decodeBytesWithReturnedLength:].

    This makes these methods consistent with the general convention for implementing Objective-C method. This change was missed at earlier cleanups because implementing these NSCoder methods uses custom logic in C.

  • Added objc._C_PythonObject with the encoding for PyObject*.

    This is primarily for internal use by PyObjC, using PyObjC as an FFI tool for callin CPython APIs is not supported.

  • Added isSlot argument to objc.ivar to define Python variable slots.

    This is primairly here for internal use of the bridge, use __slots__ to define slots.

  • objc.ivar instances can now be compared for equality. Two instances are considered equal if the tuple (name, type, isOutlet, isSlot) for the two values are equal.

  • When __slots__ is a string the class will have a single slot with that name. In previous versions the class would have a number of slots with single-character names.

    The new behaviour matches that of regular Python classes.

  • The objc.objc_class type now has a __hasdict__ attribute that is True if instances of the class have a __dict__ attribute and is False otherwise.

  • It is now an error when two instance variables (objc.ivar, including those defined through __slots__) have the same Objective-C name, and that includes redefining a slot in a superclass.

    In previous versions this was not an error and the two objc.ivar objects would use the same memory in the instance, which could lead to crashes if the two did not have the same type encoding.

  • Fix longstanding bug in class construction:

    class MyClass(NSObject):
       def method(self):

    In previous versions only MyClass.method is defined, whereas the code in the bridge intended to define MyClass.foobar as well.

  • Fix type encoding for respondsToSelector: method that’s implicitly defined by the bridge.

  • In previous versions accessing a hidden selector showed an objc.native_selector instead of an objc.selector for hidden selectors implemented in Python, and those objects did not have the isHidden attribute set to true.

  • #506: Code no longer uses PySlice_GetIndicesEx, which was deprecated by CPython in 3.6.

  • Tweak pyobjc_setup.py to re-enable the error message when trying to install framework bindings on systems other than macOS.

  • “Hidden” selectors implemented in Python can now be introspected though pyobjc_instanceMethods and pyobjc_classMethod. In previous versions the following assertion would fail:

    class MyClass(NSObject):
        def hidden(self):
        hidden = objc.selector(hidden, isHidden=True)
    assert isinstance(MyClass.pyobjc_instanceMethods.hidden)

    A side effect of this is that calling hidden methods implemented in Python from Python now uses the “python to python” code path and won’t translate argument and return values from Python to Objective-C and back again.

    Also note that (as usual) Key-Value Observing (KVO) complicates the picture, if the hidden method is a property accessor (for KVO) and the object is observed accessing the method will result in a “native” selector, not the original one due to the way KVO is implemented in the system.

  • #522: Remove the implementation of respondsToSector: and methodSignatureForSelector:.

    In previous versions PyObjC included custom implementation of these methods for subclasses of NSObject implemented in Python, but the default implementation in NSObject works just as well for Python classes.

  • Creating an objc.ivar will now raise an exception if the specified type encoding is not valid. Previous versions would raise on the first use of the instance variable.

  • #522: Reimplemented objc.informal_protocol in Python

    The new implementation adds a number of new methods to give objc.informal_protocol the same interface as objc.formal_protocol, which simplifies the implementation of code using protocols.

    That said, objc.informal_protocol still has a selectors attribute that is not present on objc.formal_protocol. This will not change.

  • #522: The code that validates if a new class conforms to all protocols it claims to conform to is now written in Python.

    As a side effect of this the error message for an invalid protocol conformance definition no longer mentions with definition was invalid (the protocols keyword or the __pyobjc_protocols__ class attribute).

    The new implementation is also more strict in the values of selectors that are accepted, all selectors not be instances of objc.native_selector and must have a callable attribute that is not None.

  • #523: PyObjC’s default implementation for -forwardInvocation: now calls the method stub (IMP) through libffi, instead of trying to reproduce the logic of the method stub in the implementation for -forwardInvocation:. This removes about 300 lines of C code and makes sure the semantics of message forwarding match that of regular method calls.

    This only affects subclasses of NSObject implemented in Python, the bridge contains a second implementation of forwardInvocation: for regular Python class with limited functionality (and very low performance).

  • In previous versions PyObjC would introduce an intermediate class between a pure Objective-C super class and the first Python sub class when this was needed for correctness. This class is now always introduced.

    There are two reasons for this:

    1. Adding some methods (such as copyWithZone_) to a class after it was constructed caused problems in older version because the intermediate class wasn’t present.

    2. Simplifies the code for building a class

    The intermediate class is named _PyObjCIntermediate_{NAME} where {NAME} is the name of the super class, in previous versions it was named _PyObjCCopying_{NAME}.

  • Fix objc.listInstanceVariables failure when one of the classes in the class hierarchy does not have instance variables.

  • Fix crash when the filter for the UninitializedDeallocWarning warning is set to “error”.

  • Fix conversion of float subclasses with custom __repr__ to objc.NSDecimal.

  • Fix handling objc.NSDecimal in boolean contexts: In previous versions objc.NSDecimal(0) was interpreted as true-ish in boolean contexts, it now is interpreted as false-ish just like other number types.

  • #381: Add bindings for the IOBluetooth and IOBluetoothUI frameworks

  • Add bindings for the PHASE framework

  • #363: Support possible buffer overrun in NSCoder API helpers

    The implementations for NSCoder APIs that have a type encoding argument assumed that the Py_buffer representation of the type encoding is a NUL-terminated string.

    This is a valid assumption for the bytes and bytesarray types, but is not guaranteed by the buffer API and could result in reading past the end of the buffer when an incomplete type encoding is passed to these APIs.

    As a side effect of this fix there is minor change in the API for these methods: - Type encodings containing unions and bitfields now error out early; - Type encodings for structs cannot contain embedded field names; - The APIs are slightly slower due to validating the type encoding.

  • Calling -[SFAuthorizationView authorizationRights] now works, in previous version the support code was present but enabled for a non-existing method name.

  • #527: The type of objc.NULL is now created with PyType_FromSpec.

    This has the unfortunate side effect of making it possible to change type attributes on Python 3.9 or earlier. Do not do this, the type is immutable in Python 3.10 or later.

  • #527: A number of types are now created with PyType_FromSpec:

    • objc.PyObjCPointer

    • objc.FILE

    • objc.formal_protocol

    • objc.function

    • objc.NSDecimal

    • objc.varlist

    • objc.WeakRef

    • objc.super

    • objc.IMP

    • objc.FSRef

    • objc.selector

    • objc.native_selector

    • objc.python_selector

    • all types created by objc.createStructType

    • CoreAudio.AudioBuffer

    • CoreAudio.AudioBufferList

    • CoreAudio.AudioChannelDescription

    • CoreAudio.AudioChannelLayout

    • CoreAudio.AudioValueTranslation

    For these types the class can be changed in Python 3.9 earlier, but not in 3.10 or later. The ability to change class attributes in Python 3.9 and earlier is due to a limitation in PyType_FromSpec in those versions, don’t rely on this.

    This is a small step towards supporting subinterpreters, although it is unclear at this time when PyObjC will support this in part due to CPython missing some API functionality required by the implementation of objc.objc_object and objc.objc_class when using PyType_FromSpec.

  • #423: objc.ivar is now created with PyType_FromSpec. Because of that the private method objc.ivar._add_attribute has been removed.

  • The creation of objc.super is now less hacky although it still relies on implementation details of builtins.super.

  • Fixed bug that could result in a crash when the proxy for a Python iterator ended up being deallocated after the Python interpreter is finalized.

  • Code cleanup for objc._objc continues, in this version the module initialisation code was much simplified, most of it is now table-driven. This has no user visible effects.

  • Types created by objc.createStructType now have a (read-only) __packed__ attribute that’s -1 if the C struct has default packing, and positive integer when the C struct has some other packing.

  • #382: Add bindings for APIs defined in header xpc/xpc.h

    This is a low-level API to perform RPCs using the XPC protocol on macOS.

  • #376: Updated libdispatch bindings, fixing a number of issues with automatic retaincount management.

  • The python package name in pyobjc-framework-libdispatch is now dispatch instead of libdispatch. The old name also works, with no plans to remove it.

  • #113: Implement JavaScriptCore.JSExportAs

    This required some change to pyobjc-core as well. The exact interface used by JSExportAs is for now considered a private implementation detail.

    XXX: As this time actually using JSExportAs doesn’t work, even though the shape of the protocol looks correctly.

  • The Metal bindings now contain definitions for MTLPackedFloat3, MTLPackedFloat4x3, MTLAccelerationStructureInstanceDescriptor and MTLPackedFloat3Make.

  • Upgraded framework bindings for Xcode 14.3 (macOS 13.3 SDK)

  • Dropped custom implementation of protocol_getMethodDescription

    FB11984735: In earlier versions of macOS there were problems with actually registering protocols in some cases. A custom implementation of this function allowed tests to pass. Turns out that debugging code that uses protocol_getMethodDescription during protocol construction caused problems…

  • #535: Speed up standalone tests with assertCallableMetadataIsSane

    This assertion method is very slow because it looks at all callable attributes, sped up considerably for standalone tests by only looking at attribute names that might be callable (by poking in implementation details of the lazy loader).

    This halves the time needed to run the check for the Cocoa bindings (from over 200 seconds to just over 100 seconds). That’s still too slow, but does help.

    The method is also smarter about iterating over methods, shaving another 20 seconds from this test.

  • #539: Fix incorrect metadata for IOSurfaceCreate that resulted in a crash when that API was used.

  • #537: Switch from pkg_resources to importlib in the support for bridgesupport XML files because the setuptools project has deprecated the pkg_resources module.

Version 9.0.1

  • #512: Fix metadata for webView:runJavaScriptConfirmPanelWithMessage:initiatedByFrame:completionHandler: and webView:runJavaScriptTextInputPanelWithPrompt:defaultText:initiatedByFrame:completionHandler: in the WebKit bindings.

  • #508: Reintroduce support for bridgesupport files that was dropped in 9.0.

    There are external users for this interface and the replacement used by PyObjC itself is not yet in a state where it can be used by other projects.

  • Framework bindings were updated for the SDK included in Xcode 14.1

  • #517: Fix bad markup in overview of wrapped frameworks

  • #519: Fix compile error with Python 3.12

Version 9.0

  • Support for macOS 13 (Xcode 14 beta 4)

  • Updated framework bindings for macOS 13

    The list below lists the frameworks that have API changes that affect the framework bindings.

  • Added bindings for the following frameworks (all new in macOS 13):

    • AVRouting

    • BackgroundAssets

    • ExtensionKit

    • HealthKit

    • MetalFX

    • SafetyKit

    • SharedWithYou

    • SharedWithYouCore

    • ThreadNetwork

  • The definition of a number of basic structs has moved in the SDK for macOS 13 and PyObjC conforms to this change on all platforms.

    In particular:

    • CGPoint, CGSize, CGVector, CGRect, CGAffineTransform and CGAffineTransformComponents are now defined in the CoreFoundation module.

    • NSPoint, NSSize and NSRect are now aliases for the corresponding CG* types

      (instead of the other way around in previous versions of PyObjC).

    Both changes should require no changes to scripts, unless code relies on the particular __name__ of a type.

  • The extension API (“pyobjc-api.h”) now has nullability annotations, which may lead to compilation errors or warnings when compiling 3th-party extensions using this API.

  • The extension API (“pyobjc-api.h”) has a changed interface for creating method IMPs, because of this extensions for older versions of PyObjC cannot be used with PyObjC 9.

  • #416: PyObjC 9.0 requires Python 3.7 or later

  • #384: Remove support for BridgeSupport files

    The bridge itself hasn’t used these files for a long time, and system bridgesupport files are basically unusable.

  • #415: Remove objc._setClassExtender

    This was an internal function that’s no longer used by PyObjC itself.

  • #429: Remove -[OC_PythonNumber getValue:forType:]

    This method is never actually used by the system and is not part of the NSNumber interface (but possibly was in the past)

  • #438: Removed bindings for the Message and ServerNotification frameworks.

    Both frameworks were removed in macOS 10.9 and hence cannot be used on a platform that’s still supported by PyObjC.

  • #451: Removed the type attribute for ObjCPointer

    The typestr attribute contains the same value and has more consistent naming with the rest of PyObjC.

  • #436: Quarrtz.CVPixelBufferCreateWithBytes now conforms to the PyObjC standard for returning values: it returns a tuple of two values, the C return value and the value return through pixelBufferOut.

    In older versions the return value was only the value return through pixelBufferOut.

  • 464: The encodings objc._C_NSBOOL and objc._C_BOOL are now treated exactly the same as the types BOOL and bool have the same size and representation on arm64 and x86_64.

  • #94: Add support for SIMD types in APIs (types such as vector_float3)

    The python representation of these types are types with the same name in defined in objc.simd.

    Because the FFI library used by PyObjC (libffi) does not support these types the bridge only supports the method signatures found in system frameworks, other signatures will result in exceptions at runtime.

    The relevant libffi issue for this is #408. But note that even if that issue were to be fixed PyObjC likely won’t use SIMD support in libffi until that’s merged in the system version on macOS.

  • Because of the previous change APIs that have a SIMD type are now callable from Python.

  • Changes due to generic implementation for SIMD types:

    • SpriteKit.SK3DNode.projectPoint_: The result is now objc.simd.vector_float3 instead of a tuple

    • SpriteKit.SK3DNode.unprojectPoint_: The result is now objc.simd.vector_float3 instead of a tuple

    • SpriteKit.SKFieldNode.direction: The result is now objc.simd.vector_float3 instead of a tuple

    • SpriteKit.SKPhysicsWorld.sampleFieldsAt_: The result is now objc.simd.vector_float3 instead of a tuple

  • Still not supported (requires some more infrastructure):

    • SpriteKit.SKFieldNode.customFieldWithEvaluationBlock_

  • The registered metadata can now contain a key full_signature with the full encoding type signature for a method. This is used to replace the encoding extracted from the Objective-C runtime when one or more types have an empty encoding in the Objective-C runtime (such as the SIMD types mentioned earlier)

  • The Objective-C proxy for Python methods that require a custom helper (instead of using libffi) now use imp_implementationWithBlock.

  • #492: For a number of classes in AVFoundation the system actually uses instances from a parallel class hierarchy with _Tundra as a suffix of the class name.

    Updated the metadata generator to automatically register the same metadata updates for these classes as for the original classes.

  • #493: Fix typos in CoreMedioIO metadata for CoreFoundation types

  • #495: Added two new assertions to PyObjCTools.TestSupport.TestCase:

    • assertArgIsIDLike

    • assertResultIsIDLike

    These assert that the type of an argument or return value is a Objective-C or CoreFoundation object, or a pointer to one.

  • Fix internal error when an object that cannot be used in a boolean context is used for an ObjC argument that expects a bool or BOOL value.

  • #502: Fix incompatibility with Nuitka.

    Earlier version of PyObjC failed when compiled using Nuitka, this version does work when using Nuitka 1.1.6 or later.


    • The automatic calculation of the method signature in selector() assumes that methods return id for Nuitka compiled code.

      That should not be a problem in practice.

    As a side effect of this builtin functions are accepted as the callable for a selector, even when not specifying a signature (e.g. objc.selector(dir) now works).

  • Fixed crash in objc.selector due to uninitialized memory.

  • Move helpers for NSInvocation from pyobjc-framework-Cocoa to pyobjc-core.

  • #505: Don’t use static buffer during creation of “native” selector objects

    This can avoid an objc.error exception when introspecting existing Cocoa classes.

  • #479: Revert change that made it impossible to replace a method with a property.

Version 8.6

  • #468: Fix setup.py for framework bindings to ensure that python setup.py build_ext works for bindings that don’t contain a C extension.

  • Fix incompatibilities with Python 3.11 (beta 1)

    • Switch to PyCode_GetCode instead of accessing the co_code field on Python 3.11.

    • Add definition for PassKit.PKPaymentNetworkAppleStoredValue (actually using this won’t work as the constant is not present on macOS 12.4 even though the SDK seems to suggest otherwise)

  • Add definition for objc.MAC_OS_X_VERSION_12_4

Version 8.5

This release continues the work on test coverage in pyobjc-core, resulting in a number of minor bug fixes.

  • Added two options to the build_ext command in the setup.py of pyobjc-core:

    • --no-lto: Disable link time optimization

    • --no-warnings-as-errors: Disable -Werror

  • For struct bindings in frameworks the “in” operator no longer swallows exceptions raised by the __eq__ method.

  • Improved handing of invalid type encodings for struct types.

  • Fix crash while handling a struct wrapper with an invalid type encoding.

  • Fix handling of empty structs (such as struct foo { }; in objc.repythonify().

  • The type for NSObject.pyobjc_instanceMethod and NSObject.pyobjc_classMethods now supports the GC protocol to avoid garbage collection issues when the value for these properties is stored as an attribute (which introduces a reference cycle)

  • PyObjC should work with Python 3.11 alpha release, starting at alpha 6. Earlier alpha’s are not supported due to reverting a workaround for a bug that was fixed in alpha 6.

  • NSObject.alloc = 42 now fails. It was already impossible to replace a selector by something else through instances (NSObject.new().description = 42 raises).

  • Added objc.ObjCPointer.typestr with the same value as objc.ObjCPonter.type. The latter is now deprecated and will be removed in PyObjC 9.

  • Better error messages when a class implementing a protocol inherits a method of the wrong kind (“class” vs. “instance”).

  • The value of __slots__ in a class definition is now kept in the created class (previous versions always set the attribute to an empty tuple).

    This is primarily useful when __slots__ is a dict that is used to document attributes.

  • Raise the correct exception when the name of a method is not an ASCII string.

  • objc.loadSpecialVar() now better enforces that the module_globals argument is a Python dictionary.

  • Fixed a crash in objc.loadSpecialVar() due to a missing pointer dereference.

  • pip install pyobjc-framework-... for a framework that is not present on the current machine will now give a better error message when the “wheel” package is not installed.

  • Setting an integer option in objc.options to a value of an incompatible type (such as a string) will now raise an exception as intended, instead of breaking the interpreter.

  • Trying to delete an attribute from objc.options now raises AttributeError instead of TypeError.

  • objc.selector now copies the default signature from its argument when that argument is another objc.selector.

    Until now this would raise an exception.

  • Added some missing error checking in calls to PyObject_New() and PyObject_GC_New().

  • It is now possible to create an objc.selector from a callable that is not a function or bound method. This may require specifying the method signature in the call to objc.selector.

  • For pyobjc-core the build_ext command in setup.py now includes the command-line option from the standaard command, which means python setup.py build_ext -j 4 can now be used for parallel builds.

    On my M1 laptop using python setup.py build_ext -j 8 halves the time needed to build the extension.

  • The test command setup.py now supports the -v option to print test cases while they are run, in previoius versions this required using the --verbosity option.

  • Improve error handling when dealing with “isHidden” selectors.

  • Added pyobjc_hiddenSelectors(classmethods) to objc.objc_class

    This method returns a copy of the dictionary with “hidden” selectors, that is Objective-C selectors that are hidden from view.

    The method is primarily a debugging aid for development of PyObjC itself.

  • #456: ApplicationServices.AXIsProcessTrustedWithOptions and Quartrz.CGPDFArrayGetObject had incorrect metadata.

    The testsuites for the various framework bindings now have a test that does some basic checks on function and selector metadata. This test found the problem with CGPDFArrayGetObject.

  • Added objc._C_ATOMIC and objc._C_COMPLEX, both extracted from the clang sources after finding some type encodings that PyObjC could not decode.

    objc._C_ATOMIC is ignored by PyObjC (for now), and objc._C_COMPLEX is not yet supported.

  • #456: Fix internal error for _C_OUT argument markup on arguments that are CoreFoundation types.

    This can only happen with invalid metadata definitions in framework bindings, and earlier versions this resulted in an internal assertion error. With this change the “output” argument is always None in the result.

  • #463: Fix metadata for a number of functions with a C string argument

    The metadata for the following functions was changed to have the correct type encoding for string argument, to fix issues with using non-ASCII (byte) strings.

    • ApplicationServices.PMWorkflowSubmitPDFWithOptions

    • CoreServices.LocaleRefGetPartString

    • Foundation.NSGetSizeAndAlignment

    • Network.nw_advertise_descriptor_create_bonjour_service

    • Network.nw_browse_descriptor_create_bonjour_service

    • Network.nw_browse_descriptor_get_bonjour_service_domain

    • Network.nw_browse_descriptor_get_bonjour_service_type

    • Network.nw_connection_copy_description

    • Network.nw_content_context_create

    • Network.nw_content_context_get_identifier

    • Network.nw_endpoint_copy_address_string

    • Network.nw_endpoint_copy_port_string

    • Network.nw_endpoint_create_bonjour_service

    • Network.nw_endpoint_create_host

    • Network.nw_endpoint_create_url

    • Network.nw_endpoint_get_bonjour_service_domain

    • Network.nw_endpoint_get_bonjour_service_name

    • Network.nw_endpoint_get_bonjour_service_type

    • Network.nw_endpoint_get_hostname

    • Network.nw_framer_create_definition

    • Network.nw_framer_message_access_value

    • Network.nw_framer_message_copy_object_value

    • Network.nw_framer_message_set_object_value

    • Network.nw_framer_message_set_value

    • Network.nw_framer_options_set_object_value

    • Network.nw_listener_create_with_port

    • Network.nw_privacy_context_create

    • Network.nw_quic_get_application_error_reason

    • Network.nw_quic_set_application_error

    • Network.nw_txt_record_access_key

    • Network.nw_ws_options_add_additional_header

    • Network.nw_ws_options_add_subprotocol

    • Quartz.CGContextSelectFont

    • Quartz.CGContextShowText

    • Quartz.CGContextShowTextAtPoint

    • Quartz.CGDataProviderCreateWithFilename

    • Quartz.CGPDFArrayGetName

    • Quartz.CGPDFContentStreamGetResource

    • Quartz.CGPDFDictionaryGetArray

    • Quartz.CGPDFDictionaryGetBoolean

    • Quartz.CGPDFDictionaryGetName

    • Quartz.CGPDFDocumentUnlockWithPassword

    • Quartz.CGPDFScannerPopName

    • Quartz.CGPDFTagTypeGetName

    While fixing this issue I found problems with the metadata for these functions:

    • CoreMIDI.MIDIExternalDeviceCreate

    • CoreMedia.CMBlockBufferAccessDataBytes

    • CoreMedia.CMBlockBufferGetDataPointer

    • CoreMedia.CMBufferQueueInstallTriggerHandler

    • CoreMedia.CMBufferQueueInstallTriggerHandlerWithIntegerThreshold

    • CoreMedia.CMTextFormatDescriptionGetJustification

    • CoreServices.TECGetTextEncodingFromInternetNameOrMIB

    • DVDPlayback.DVDGetScanRate

    • MediaAccessibility.MACaptionAppearanceAddSelectedLanguage

    There’s also a new test that checks for this problem in all exposed functions.

  • Fix incorrect reset of the “inline_list” attribute of the lazy importer, this could result in an incorrect TypeError when trying to access an non-existing attribute after looking at __all__.

  • Fix uniqueness of symbols exposed in the OpenDirectory bindings.

  • Unhide manual bindings for Security.SecKeychainFindGenericPassword and Security.SecKeychainFindInternetPassword.

Version 8.4.1

  • #455: pip install pyobjc on a macOS 12.2 machine tried to install pyobjc-framework-ScreenCaptureKit, which is only can be installed on macOS 12.3 or later.

  • #456: Fix bad metadata for HIServices.AXIsProcessTrustedWithOptions

  • Wheels were build with Xcode 13.3 RC

    There are no changes in framework bindings relative to PyObjC 8.4 because there are no relevant API changes in Xcode 13.3 RC.

Version 8.4


The bindings for the Message and ServerNotification frameworks,
which were removed in macOS 10.9, will be removed in PyObjC 9.
  • Added bindings for ScreenCaptureKit (new in macOS 12.3)

  • Updated framework bindings for the macOS 12.3 SDK.

    Based on Xcode 13.3 beta 3

  • Reverted a change in 8.3: It is once again not possible to use the “is” operator to check if two proxies for an NSString refer to the same Cocoa object.

    The change in 8.3 changed long standng behaviour for mutable strings and may have caused unintended problems.

  • #418: Added typing.NewType definitions to the various framework bindings for all enum types in Cocoa (such as NSComparisonResult).

    Using this it is now possible to annotate methods returning such types, although it is not yet possible to type check this.

    For example:

    class MyObject(NSObject):
        def compare_(self, other: NSObject) -> NSComparisonResult:
            return NSOrderSame

    The actual representation of enum types is provisional and might change in the future.

  • #440: Added typing.NewType definitions to the various framework bindings for all NS_STRING_ENUM, NS_TYPED_ENUM and NS_TYPED_EXTENSIBLE_ENUM types in Cocoa.

  • #432: Fix compatibility check when a class implements protocol NSObject.

    The following code used to fail the protocol implementation check:

    class AppDelegate( Cocoa.NSObject, protocols=[objc.protocolNamed("NSApplicationDelegate")]):

    The reason for this is that the type encodings for (at least) -[NSObject respondsToSelector:] in the Objective-C runtime doesn’t match the type encoding in @protocol(NSObject) (the former returns char, the latter bool). The compatibility check now handles trivial differences like this.

  • #428: Class NSData now implements the API from bytes. The methods that return bytes in bytes also return bytes in NSData. This may change in a future version.

    Class NSMutableData now implements the API from bytearray as far as this doesn’t conflict with the native API. In particular, NSMutableData.copy() returns an immutable copy (instance of NSData), use NSMutableData.mutableCopy() to create a mutable copy.


    The implementation is mostly suitable for fairly small amounts of data as the Cocoa value is first copied into a Python value.

  • NSData([1,2,3]) and NSMutableData([1,2,3]) now work the same as bytes([1,2,3]) and bytearray([1,2,3]).

  • #334: Workaround for catetory on NSMutableArray that introduces a conflicting pop method

    Some class in Cocoa can at times introduce an (undocumented) selector -pop on subclasses of NSArray, which conflicts with a convenience method that emulates list.pop(). The version introduces a workaround for this by adding the convenience method to all (statically known) subclasses of NSArray.

    This is far from perfect, but fixes the problem for now.

  • Fix memory manager API misuse

    PyObjC’s str subclass used the python allocator API incorrectly, causing an assertion failure when running tests with “python3 -Xdev”, as well as a hard crash due to using the API without holding the GIL.

  • #445: Workaround for Python 3.11 support

    Workaround for BPO-46891, which causes a hard crash in the PyObjC testsuite. With this workaround the tests for pyobjc-core pass with python 3.11a5, but this does result into adding some implementation internals to the __dict__ of framework wrappers when using Python 3.11

  • Fix build error on macOS 10.9

  • Fix str implementation invariant in the objc.pyobjc_unicode subclass. With this fix the string consistency checks in debug builds of CPython pass.

  • Fix exception handling when passing a bytes object to a C function with a byte buffer “inout” argument.

Version 8.3

This release contains a lot of small fixes dueo to the continued improvement of test coverage for the C code in pyobjc-core.

  • Backward incompatible change:

    -[OC_PythonDictionary setObject:value forKey:[NSNull null]] now sets key None in the Python dictionary instead of NSNull.null().

    This is for consistency with -[OC_PythonDictionary objectForKey:] and other collection classes. Getting and setting key [NSNull null] now actually works.

  • Backward incompatible change:

    -[OC_PythonDictionary removeObjectForKey:] now raises NSInvalidArgumentException instead of Python’s KeyError for missing keys. This matches the documented behaviour of NSDictionary.

  • Backward incompatible change:

    -[Protocol descriptionForClassMethod:] now only accepts selector names (such as b"description") as its argument, not instances of objc.selector. This matches the behaviour of other methods with an argument of the C type SEL.

  • :func”objc.namedSelector and objc.typedSelector() now also work when the decorated function is a classmethod().

  • Fix build problem on macOS 10.14 or earlier

  • The Objective-C proxy for a python int is now always OC_PythonNumber, in previous versions instances were proxied as NSNumber when the value was in the range of an unsigned long long that’s outside of the range of a (signed) long long (that is, a value between 2**63 and 2**64).

  • Two NSString* values in Objective-C are now proxied to the same objc.pyobjc_unicode instance when the two pointers are equal in Objective-C.

    That is, given NSString* value1 and NSString* value2 value1 == value2 in Objective-C can be replaced by value1 is value2 in Python. In older versions of PyObjC this invariant was not maintained, requiring more involved code to check if two strings represent the same object.

    This invariant was already maintained for other instances of other Objective-C classes.

  • The proxy for python’s bytearray (and other writable buffers) now supports the mutableBytes method in Objective-C.

    As a side effect of this OC_PythonData is now a subclass of NSMutableData instead of NSData.

  • Fixed retrieving an bytearray value from a Cocoa archive

    In previous versions this resulted in garbage data.

  • Instances of bytearray can now be included in “secure” Cocoa archives

  • Remove -[OC_PythonArray getObjects:inRange:], it is not part of the regular NSArray interface and was never used.

  • The proxy for python datetime objects was rewritten to be a lot simpler.

    User visible changes:

    • The new implementation is more correct, the old implementation truncated timestamps at whole seconds.

    • Calculating in Objective-C (such as calling -[NSDate dateByAddingTimeInterval:] will now always result in an NSDate value, not a Python value.

    • The proxy code now calls the “timestamp” method instead of “strftime” during conversion from Python to Objective-C.

  • Adding datetime.datetime and datetime.date instances to an archive now works, both for keyed and classic archives.

    For the exact types datetime.datetime and datetime.date the encoding is compatible with that of NSDate and supports NSSecureCoding as long as the values are not timezone aware.

    When communicating with pure Objective-C code any timezone information will be lost.

    Note that both datetime.datetime and datetime.date are represented as an NSDate in Objective-C land, even though this Objective-C has semantics of the latter class don’t fully match that of the Cocoa class.

  • Fix python internal error when the “module_globals” argument to objc.loadBundleFunctions() is not a dict.

  • Fix the result of inspect.signature() for objc.IMP.

    In previous versions this included the implicit “selector” argument that isn’t used by Python callers.

  • Avoid crash when trying to load a “magic” cookie CoreFoundation value for a type unknown to the PyObjC bridge.

  • Removed -[OC_PythonObject pyObject].

    The method is no longer used by PyObjC itself, and these proxy objects are considered a private API that may change at any time.

  • Removed +[OC_PythonObject classForUnarchiver]

    This method was present for compatibility with the NSObject interface, but isn’t actually part of Cocoa.

  • -[OC_PythonObject methodSignatureForSelector:] and +[OC_PythonObject methodSignatureForSelector:] now return nil instead of raising an exception when the queried selector does not exist. This matches the behaviour of NSObject.

  • Fix the metadata in the bindings for DiscRecording, Intents, SceneKit, and libdispatch to ensure that the __all__ variable actually works.

  • Eliminated usage of sscanf in pyobjc-core

    A possible user visible change is that the use of sscanf to parse an IPv4 address has been replaced by a call to inet_pton(), which may affect different representations of an IPv4 address.

  • OC_PythonSet now epxlictly calls set related methods instead of using C-API functions like PySet_Clear(). This simplifies the pyobjc-core code, and gives fewer problems with set subclasses.

  • Fix the buffer size used to for “struct sockaddr” arguments

  • Added objc._C_CFRange and objc._C_NSRange with the type encodings of the C types CFRange and NSRange.

  • Functions and methods where the length of a C array argument is passed in another argument (such as int function(int* buffer, size_t bufsize)) now also work when the argument with the size is a pointer to a CFRange or a pointer to a char.

  • A memoryview of an NSMutableData instance is now writable.

  • Fix crash when trying to create an objc.informal_protocol with a sequence of selectors that contains a value that isn’t an instance of objc.selector.

  • #435: Fix build problem with Xcode 13.3

    Xcode 13.3 introduces a new warning in -Wall: -Wunused-but-set-variable, and this found some code quality issues with PyObjC.

Version 8.2

This release contains a lot of little fixes due to improving test coverage of the C code in pyobjc-core. These are mostly fixes for edge cases that don’t happen in normal programs.

  • Reintroduce binary wheels for Python 3.6

    PyObjC 8.x still supports Python 3.6, but I didn’t ship binary wheels until now.

    I plan to explicitly remove support for Python 3.6 in PyObjC 9, which will include updating package metadata to ensure that users of Python 3.6 will keep using PyObjC 8.x.

  • #414: [Python 3.10] The representation for C structures, like Foundation.NSPoint now have a __match_args__ attribute, which means it is now possible to use positional arguments to these types in match expressions.

    For example:

    from Foundation import NSPoint
    value = ...
    match value:
        case NSPoint(0, _):
            print("On the Y axis")
  • The internal extension API between framework bindings and pyobjc-core has been cleaned up a little. Because of this extensions need to be recompiled for this version.

  • objc.allocateBuffer() is deprecated, use bytearray instead

    This function has always returned a bytearray object in Python 3 and it no longer necessary.

    As a side effect of this change the function is now implemented in Python instead of C.

  • The private function objc._dyld_shared_cache_contains_path is now always available, and unconditionally returns False on systems without a shared library cache.

  • The private function objc._setClassExtender is now implemented in Python and will be removed in PyObjC 9.

  • Removed private function objc._typestr2typestr.

    This function was untested and is no longer used by PyObjC.

  • Removed the selector supportsWeakPointers from a number of classes.

    This method may have been needed during Apple’s transition to ARC, but is no longer document and I’ve never seen it called during testing on recent versions of the OS.

    Furthermore the custom implementation of retain and release in PyObjC is a thin wrapper around the default one with additional locking to avoid race conditions during deallocation.

  • objc.recylceAutoReleasePool() will now restore the global release pool when called after calling objc.removeAutoreleasePool().

  • Removed objc.FSSpec

    This is a wrapper for a C type that’s only usable in 32-bit code, PyObjC no longer supports 32-bit.

  • The default implementation of -copy for subclasses of Objective-C classes that implemented -copy (needed to adjust Python attributes) didn’t consider that the superclass implementation of -copy may return an instance of a different class. This caused a hard crash.

    The easiest way to trigger this bug: Create a subclass of NSMutableData in Python, create an instance of that class and call the copy method.

  • The module PyObjCTools.TestSupport was modernized a little

    This most visible part of this is that a number of functions and assertion method have been removed because they have a better alternative in the unittest library.

  • #404: Instances of the Python representation of C structs can now be pickled.

    That is, instances of AppKit.NSPoint, Foundation.NSRange, etc. can be pickled. The exception are a number of types in the CoreAudio bindings that have manual wrapper types instead of the generic support in pyobjc-core.

  • Switch to PyCapsule_Import() to load the PyObjC API object in extension modules.

  • Fix crash when calling objc.FSRef.from_pathname() with a path that cannot be encoded in the filesystem encoding (UTF-8).

  • Fix name of opaque pointer type wrappers (such as Foundation.NSZonePtr)

    The “__name__” and “__qualname__” attributes were correct, but the corresponding slot in the C struct of the type could point to no longer valid memory.

  • Function objc.registerABCForClass() now actually works

  • Fix bug in lazyloader where fetching the module’s __all__ could raise AttributeError for some particular constants.

  • #317: Cleanup code dealing with libffi closures APIs on various versions of macOS.

  • If fetching the __pyobjc_object__ attribute during conversion from Python to Objective-C raisea an exception other than AttributeError the conversion will fail.

    In previous versions the attribute was ignored when this happens.

  • Fix error in __str__ and __repr__ of an Objective-C instance when the class’ description selector returns nil.

  • Fixed crash in conversion of an Objective-C exception to a Python exception when the exception name is NULL.

  • Type encoding that ends with an incomplete pointer definition will now raise an error earlier, in particular before the first time the callable is used.

  • Using a value for the metadata dict of functions and selectors that is not a dict now raises an exception instead of being silently ignored.

  • The “suggestion” function metadata was ignored for objc.function instances using the fast FFI variant.

  • Deprecating the function returned by an API exposed through objc.function would cause a crash.

  • Fix value of the “deprecated” key in the result of __metadata__() for callables that are deprecated in a macOS version.

  • Loading metadata for a function with more than 63 arguments would crash the interpreter.

    Note that calling such function is not supported even with this bugfix.

  • #406: The “docstring” field in the function list argument for objc.loadBundleFunctions() was effectively ignored. It is now part of the document string (__doc__) of the objc.function object.

  • Actually implemented cyclic GC support in objc.python_method.

  • Fix crash when calling -[NSObject dealloc], -[NSObject retain] or -[NSObject release] though an objc.IMP, for example:

    anObject = NSObject.alloc().init()
    retain = anObject.methodForSelector_("retain")
  • Tests in pyobjc-core better check the message of raised exceptions

    This resulted in some minor changes in messages, this should not affect code using PyObjC.

  • Fix the __name__ and __repr__ result for the exact class objc.objc_object.

  • Fix use of uninitialized variable in the code that converts a C struct from Objective-C to a Python tuple.

  • Added PyObjCTools.TestSupport.no_autorelease_pool() to disable autorelease pool management by the test runnner for a specific test.

  • NSMutableArray.insert(idx, value) would fail when idx is beyond the length of the array. It now behaves the same as list.insert(), the item will be appended to the array.

  • Change the way type specific class methods are added to objc.ivar.

    This changes the way class methods are added to objc.ivar to be more correct in the CPython interpreter.

  • #425: Fix CoreMIDI bindings

    The CoreMIDI is a wheel with a limited ABI tag, but one of the two extensions was build without using the limited ABI, resulting in a wheel that worked only for one python version.

Version 8.1

  • Added a “flush” method to objc.FILE

  • objc.FILE.readline() would crash if the file is closed in Python.

  • Instance variable descriptors can now be retrieved from a class. That is, given:

    class SomeClass(NSobject):
        myvar = objc.ivar("myvar")

    It is now possible to access SomeClass.myvar, in previous versions this raised TypeError.

  • SomeClass.alloc() would raise an internal error in PyObjC 8 when this method returned nil.

  • #399: Fix error message when passing wrong number of arguments in a call of an Objective-C method

  • #399: Disable support for Py_TPFLAGS_METHOD_DESCRIPTOR in objc.selector and objc.python_method.

    I’m looking for a better solutions, but for now this is needed to avoid problems in code that stores a bound selector as class attribute.

  • #401: AppKit.NSCenterTextAlignment and AppKit.NSRightTextAlignment had a wrong value for arm64 systems.

  • Update framework bindings for Xcode 13.2 (macOS 12.1 SDK)

  • PyObjC now works correctly on macOS 11 or later when compiled on macOS 10.15 or earlier.

  • All messages from the deprecated module PyObjCTools.Signals are now printed on stderr.

  • PyObjCTools.MachSignals won’t cause an interpreter error when the signal dictionary doesn’t contain a handler for a signal.

  • value in someNSPoint works again, instead of hanging the interpreter.

Version 8.0

Backward incompatible changes

  • In PyObjC 7 and earlier it was possible to leave out “output” arguments when calling a method with a Python implementation:

    class MyClass(NSObject):
        def methodWithOutput_(self, a):
            return 1, 2
    o = MyClass.alloc().init()

    This no longer works, it is always necessary to pass in all arguments, which was already true for methods implemented in Objective-C. That is:


    This change both simplifies the PyObjC code base and was required to cleanly implement vectorcall support (see the section on performance below).

  • Removed bindings for InterfaceBuilderKit. This was a way to integrate with InterfaceBuilder in old versions of Xcode, but support for that was dropped before the release of Mac OS X 10.8.

  • Bindings for the Objective-C runtime API related to “associated objects” is now enabled unconditionally. This will cause problems when running or building on macOS 10.6 or earlier.

  • It is no longer possible to deploy to macOS 10.7 or earlier when you attempt to create a formal protocol. Protocol creation already failed on those platform due to lack of the required runtime API, and that will now result in a crash because PyObjC no longer checks for availability of that runtime API.

  • #371: Remove manual bindings for a number of old CoreGraphics APIs

    The following functions are no longer available:

    • CGDataProviderCreate

    • CGDataProviderCreateDirectAccess

    These functions were removed as a public API in macOS 10.8, but were still available through PyObjC through old backward compatibility code. That code has now been removed.

  • For compatibility with Python’s socket APIs functions that return a “struct sockaddr” (either by reference or as a function result) will now encode the IP address as a string and not a bytes object.

  • The (undocumented) API in pyobjc-api.h (used in some framework bindings to integratie with pyobjc-core) has changed in an incompatible way, in particular the API for “caller” functions now mostly mirrors the vectorcall convention.

  • Adding a method with a double underscore name will now raise an exception at class definition time instead of silently not creating the Objective-C method.

         class AClass (NSObject):
         def __foo_bar__(self, a, b, c):
         MethodNamesClass.__foo_bar__ = __foo_bar__
    Before PyObjC 8 this would add a ``__foo_bar__`` selector to the Python
    representation of the class without adding a selector to the Objective-C class.
    Use :func:`objc.python_method` to mark this as a python-only function.

Upcoming incompatible changes

  • The module PyObjCTools.Signals is deprecated and will be removed in PyObjC 9.

  • objc.initFrameworkWrapper() and objc.parseBridgeSupport() are deprecated and will be removed in PyObjC 9.

    These functions implement support for “.bridgesupport” XML files, something that PyObjC hasn’t used itself in a number of releases (in part because system versions of those files are at best incomplete).


Most performance changes use features introduced in Python 3.9, performance in older Python versions is unchanged except for the effects of general cleanup.

  • Implement the “vectorcall” protocol for objc.function, objc.WeakRef, objc.selector, objc.IMP, objc.python_method.

    This reduces the interpreter overhead for calling instances of these objects.

  • Implement Py_TPFLAGS_METHOD_DESCRIPTOR for objc.selector, objc.python_method.

  • Use vectorcall in the method stub that forwards Objective-C calls to Python.

  • Convert internal calls into Python to the vectorcall protocol (pyobjc-core)

  • Add more optimized vectorcall implementation to objc.function, objc.IMP and objc.selector for simpler callables.

    In the current version “simpole enough” callables have a 8 or fewer arguments, and none of those arguments are pass by reference. This will change over time.

Generic Implementation Quality

  • #391: Fix some spelling errors found by the codespell tool.

    The codespell tool is also run as part of pre-commit hooks.

  • #296: use clang-format for Objective-C code

    The Objective-C code for the various extensions has been reformatted using clang-format, and this enforced by a pre-commit hook.

  • #374: Use pyupgrade to modernize the code base

    This is enforced by a pre-commit hook.

  • #388: Added “nullability” attributes to Objectice-C sources for pyobjc-core.

    This gives the compiler and clang static analyzer more information that can be used to pinpoint possible bugs in the implementation. As a side effect of this a number of internal checks were strengthened, although most of them were for error conditions that should never happen.

    That said, this change also found a number of places where Python reference counts weren’t updated properly, which may have led to refcount overflows in long running programs.

  • Add more error checking to pyobjc-core to catch (very) unlikely error conditions.

    This is a side effect of the previous item.

New features

  • Updated framework bindings for macOS 12

  • New framework bindings for the following frameworks:

    • AudioVideoBridging (introduced in macOS 10.8)

    • DataDetection (introduced in macOS 12.0)

    • IntentsUI (introduced in macOS 12.0)

    • LocalAuthenticationEmbeddedUI (introduced in macOS 12.0)

    • MailKit (introduced in macOS 12.0)

    • MetricKit (introduced in macOS 12.0)

    • ShazamKit (introduced in macOS 12.0)

  • #318: Implement support for __class_getitem__ for Objective-C classes

    The result of this is that effectively all Objective-C classes can be used as generic classes, without runtime type checking. This is meant to be used with optional type checking (for example MyPy)


    def create_integers(count: int) -> NSArray[int]:
        return NSArray[int].arrayWithArray_([i for i in range(count)])


    This requires typing stubs for framework bindings to be really useful, and those do not yet exist.

  • #354: Add an option to install all framework bindings, including those not relevant for the current platform. To use this:

    $ pip install 'pyobjc[allbindings]'

Other changes and bugfixes

  • #390: pyobjc-core is no longer linked with the Carbon framework.

    Due to implicit dependencies this also required a change to the Metal bindings: those now import AppKit instead of Foundation.

  • PyObjC only ships “Universal 2” wheels for Python 3.8 and later. Those work with single-architecture builds of Python as well.

  • PyObjC 8 only ships with source archives and “univeral2” binary wheels (Python 3.? and later). There are no longer “x86_64” binary wheels.

  • The AVFoundation bindings (in pyobjc-framework-AVFoundation) now have an install dependency on the CoreAudio bindings (pyobjc-framework-CoreAudio).

    This is needed for a new API introduced in macOS 12.

  • #371: Link extensions in the Quartz bindings to the Quartz frameworks

    A number of C extensions in the Quartz bindings package were not linked to a framework. Those now link to the Quartz framework.

  • #378: Fix raising ImportError when doing from ApplicationServices import *

    The root cause for this were private classes in system frameworks that contain a dot in their name (for example Swift.DispatchQueueShim. Those names are both private and invalid attribute names.

  • Creating protocols that contain methods that have a method signature containing PyObjC custom type encodings now works (those encodings are translated to the corresponding Objective-C encoding.

  • Fix bindings for SKIndexCopyDocumentRefsForDocumentIDs, that binding didn’t work due to a typo in the metadata.

  • #365: The PyObjCTools namespace package no longer has an __init__.py file in the source tree (that is, the tree switches to implicit namespace packages instead of the older setuptools style for namespace packages).

    This primarily affects testing with recent versions of pip/setuptools (which seem to no longer install the __init__.py file for namespace packages).

  • development-support/run-testsuite now uses venv instead of virtualenv. This removes a development dependency.

  • #367: Tweak the code that calculates PyObjC_BUILD_RELEASE in the various setup.py files to deal with versions with more than two labels (can happen when building using Xcode 13 beta)

    PR by Eric Lin (Tzu Hsiang Lin), github user eric100lin.

  • PyObjCTest.TestSupport now never uses “10.16” as the OS release but always uses the actual platform version, even when Python was compiled using an old SDK.

  • Adjusted PyObjC testcases to check for 11.0 instead of 10.16 now that testsupport uses the real platform version.

  • #385: Fix race condition the lazy importer

    When two threads simultaneously try to get an attribute from a framework binding one of them might fail with an attribute error because information for resolving the name was removed before actually resolving the name.

  • Fix various issues with invalid indices in objc.varlist

  • Fix support for AF_UNIX in the support code for struct sockaddr.

  • The implementation for opaque pointer types (such as the proxy for NSZone*) has switched to PyType_FromSpec().

  • The objc.FSRef.from_path() and objc.FSRef.as_pathname(), methods now use the filesystem encoding instead of the default encoding. C string. This shouldn’t affect any code, both encoding default to UTF-8 on macOS.

  • Inheriting directly from objc.objc_object now raises TypeError instead of objc.InternalError. User code should always inherit from a Cocoa class.

Version 7.3

  • #356: Explicitly error out when building for unsupported architectures

    “python setup.py build” will now fail with a clear error when trying to build PyObjC for a CPU architecture that is no longer supported (such as 32-bit Intel)

  • #319: Use memset instead of bzero in C code to clear memory

    Based on a PR by GitHub user stbdang.

  • #348: Fix platform version guard for using protocols in MetalPerformanceShaders bindings

  • #344: Fix test for CFMessagePortCreateLocal

    The tests didn’t actually test calling the callback function for CFMessagePortCreateLocal.

  • #349: Change calls to htonl in pyobjc-core to avoid compiler warning

    The original code had a 32-bit assumption (using ‘long’ to represent a 32-bit value), and that causes problems for some users build from source.

  • #315: Fix binding for SecAddSharedWebCredential (Security framework)

    Trying to use this function will no longer crash Python.

  • #357: Calling Metal.MTLCopyAllDevices() no longer crashes

    The reference count of the result of this function was handled incorrect, causing access to an already deallocated value when the Python reference was garbage collected.

  • #260: Add manual bindings for AXValueCreate and AXValueGetValue in ApplicationServices

    Calling these crashed in previous versions.

  • #320, #324: Fix the type encoding for a number of CoreFoundation types in the Security bindings

  • #336: Add core support for ‘final’ classes

    It is now possible to mark Objective-C classes as final, that is to disable subclassing for such classes.

    This is primarily meant to be used in framework bindings for matching Objective-C semantics.

    This adds two new APIs:

    1. A keyword argument “final” when defining a new class:

      class MyClass (NSObject, final=True):
    2. An read-write attribute “__objc_final__” on all subclasses of NSObject.

    Note that this is a separate concept from typing.final().

Version 7.2

  • Update bindings for the macOS 11.3 SDK

    This SDK introduces a separate AVFAudio framework, but PyObjC continues to expose these APIs through the AVFoundation bindings.

Version 7.1

  • Update bindings for the macOS 11.1 SDK

  • Add bindings for framework “AdServices” (new in macOS 11.1)

  • #333: Improve SDK version detection in framework bindings

Version 7.0.1

  • #337: PyObjC doesn’t work on Catalina or earlier

    Fix by Lawrence D’Anna.

Version 7.0

  • This version drops support for 32-bit executables, both the core bridge and the framework wrappers only support 64-bit executables going forward

  • PyObjC is now always build with the system libffi.

  • Removed metadata for 32-bit systems

  • Existing framework bindings were updated for the macOS 11 SDK

  • Added bindings for the following frameworks: - Accessibility (introduced in macOS 11.0) - AppTrackingTransparency (introduced in macOS 11.0) - CallKit (introduced in macOS 11.0) - ClassKit (introduced in macOS 11.0) - KernelManagement (introduced in macOS 11.0) - MetalPerformanceShaders (introduced in macOS 10.13) - MetalPerformanceShadersGraph (introduced in macOS 11.0) - MLCompute (introduced in macOS 11.0) - PassKit (introduced in macOS 11.0) - ReplayKit (introduced in macOS 11.0) - ScreenTime (introduced in macOS 11.0) - UniformTypeIdentifiers (introduced in macOS 11.0) - UserNotificationsUI (introduced in macOS 11.0) - Virtualization (introduced in macOS 11.0)

  • Dropped the bindings to the QTKit framework

    This framework was removed in macOS 10.15.

    These bindings contained a C extension and cannot be build with recent versions of Xcode.

  • Dropped the bindings for the XgridFoundation framework

    This framework was removed in macOS 10.8.

  • Updated objc.dyld_library and objc.dyld_framework to return a sane result on macOS 11 where system libraries are no longer at the expected location, but in a shared cache.

  • Another attempt at giving a nice error message when trying to install on platforms other than macOS.

Version 6.2.2

  • #311: Build for the Metal bindings failed on macOS 10.14

  • #309: Fix incompatibility with macOS 11 in framework loader

  • The classifiers now correctly identify supported Python versions

  • #301: pyobjc-framework-Metal build failed on macOS mojave

  • Python 3.10 support: Don’t assume the result of Py_REFCNT, Py_SIZE and Py_TYPE are an lvalue.

  • Python 3.10 support: Completely phase out use of old buffer API, which will be removed in Python 3.10.

    As a side effect of this a number of extensions that used the limited ABI once again use the regular ABI.

  • Removed remnants of support for i386, ppc and ppc64 from pyobjc-core.

  • Added type to manage Py_buffer lifetimes to the internal API in pyobjc-core, to be used by framework wrappers.

  • Add objc._C_BYREF. This definition was missing, but isn’t used in modern ObjC code.

  • #323: Remove leading slashes from detected SDK patch to avoid miscalculating the version.

    Patch by GitHub user linuxfood.

  • #322: Avoid None error in PyObjCTools.AppHelper

    Patch by github user mintho

  • #321: Fix typo in documentation

    Patch by github user russeldavis

Version 6.2.1

  • #299: Ensure package ‘pyobjc’ won’t try to build the PubSub bindings on macOS 10.15

    Reported by Thomas Buchberger

  • Minor tweaks to build and pass tests on macOS 10.14 with the latest Xcode that can be installed on that version of macOS.

  • #300: Fix SystemError in block edge case

    PyObjC raised a SystemError when converting a callable into an ObjC block when the callable is a bound method without positional arguments.

  • #275: Fix crash on catalina caused by writing to read-only memory.

    Patch by Dan Villiom Podlaski Christiansen

  • #302: Make sure the SDK detection works when the version is not in the SDK name

    Patch by Joshua Root

  • There were no SDK updates in Xcode 11.5 and Xcode 11.6 (beta)

Version 6.2

  • The project has moved from Bitbucket to Github

  • Remove most remnants of Python 2 support

  • Clean up code quality issues found using flake8

  • Add pre-commit hook to run black on all Python code.

  • #290: Fix protocol conformance testing when explicitly implementing a protocol

    Before this bugfix a class explicitly conforming to a protocol could not implement any method that wasn’t declared in the protocol, the bridge would erroneously raise an exception when checking the additional method.

    Issue reported by Georg Seifert.

  • #289: Fix Python 3 issues in PyObjCTools.Conversion

    Reported by vinolin asokan.

  • PyObjCTools.Conversio.propertyListFromPythonCollection didn’t

    recursively convert members of lists and tuples.

  • PyObjCTools.Conversio.propertyListFromPythonCollection and PyObjCTools.Conversio.pythonCollectionFromPropertyList now support sets.

  • Update metadata for Xcode 11.4 (beta 2)

  • Added bindings for framework AutomaticAssessmentConfiguration.framework introduced in macOS 10.15.4

  • #298: In some cases the compiler uses the type encoding “^{NSObject=#}” instead of “@”.

    Reported by Georg Seifert.

  • #264: Added bindings for the Metal framework (new in macOS 10.11)

  • Most framework bindings now use the limited ABI for the included C extensions, reducing the number of wheels that are needed. The exception are the bindings for Cocoa, Quartz and libdispatch, those use functionality not available in the limited ABI.

    The bridge itself (pyobjc-core) still uses the full CPython API.

    The CoreAudio bindings also don’t use the limited ABI for now, those need more work to work with that ABI.

Version 6.1

  • Updated for the macOS 10.15.1 SDK (Xcode 11.2)

  • Fix reference counting in -[OC_PythonData length], which resulted in use-after-free.

  • #281: Fix problems found in pyobjc-core by the clang static analyser

Version 6.0.1

  • #277: Remove debug print accidentally left in production

  • #278: Suppress “-Wunguarded-availability” warnings in the extension AppKit._inlines

Version 6.0

  • Removed Python 2 support from the C extension in pyobjc-core

  • Reformatted code in pyobjc-core:

    • Use “black” for Python code

    • Use “clang-format” for Objective-C code

      As a side-effect of this all usage of “NS_DURING” and “PyObjC_DURING” has been replaced by the expansion of those macros, mostly because “clang-format” doesn’t understand these kinds of blocks.

      Replacing “PyObjC_DURING” by its expansion also reduces the knowledge needed to understand what’s going on w.r.t. the Python GIL.

      The macro “PyObjC_DURING”, and its siblings, have been removed as well.

  • Updated bindings for macOS 10.15 (Xcode 11.0)

  • The userspace driver frameworks introduced in macOS 10.15 (DriverKit and related frameworks) will not be exposed through PyObjC. Please let me know if you have a good use case for using these frameworks with Python.

  • Add new framework wrappers for all other new frameworks in macOS 10.15:

    • AuthenticationServices

    • CoreHaptics

    • CoreMotion

    • DeviceCheck

    • ExecutionPolicy

    • FileProvider

      FileProvider.NSFileProviderItemFieldTrashed and NSFileProviderErrorVersionOutOfDate were dropped from the framework in macOS 11.

    • FileProviderUI

    • LinkPresentation

    • OSLog

    • PencilKit

    • PushKit

    • QuickLookThumbnailing

    • Speech

    • SoundAnalysis

    • SystemExtensions

  • Add new framework wrappers for a number of older frameworks:

    • MetalKit (new in macOS 10.11)

  • #271: Fix crash when creating NSData objects on macOS 10.15

Version 5.3

  • #21: Switch xcodebuild invocation to xcrun for sdk path

    Patch by Clément Bouvier

  • #271: Fix crash when creating NSData objects on macOS 10.15

  • Fix compile error on macOS 10.15

Version 5.2

  • Updated metadata for Xcode 10.2

  • #252: objc.registerStructAlias no longer emits a deprecation warning because it is still used by the framework wrappers.

    The function is still deprecated though, the deprecation will reappear once the metadata has been updated.

  • #75: The core bridge now uses PyDict_GetItemWithError(), which may result in exceptions being raised that were previously swallowed.

  • #247: Partially switch to the new buffer API instead of the older Python 2 buffer API.

    The new implementation is more correct, but may keep Python objects alive longer than the previous implementation, and also affects buffer related functionality of Python objects. In particular, calling [someData bytes] on a Python object keeps the Py_buffer alive until the next flush of the autoreleasepool.

  • #257: Fix incorrect metadata for the callback argument to -[AVCaptureStillImageOutput captureStillImageAsynchronouslyFromConnection:completionHandler:].

  • #258: Add bindings to the “PrintCore” APIs from the ApplicationServices framework.

  • Python 2: UserDict.UserDict instances are now bridged to instances of a subclass of NSDictionary.

Version 5.1.2

  • #254: Fix compile error on macOS 10.9 or earlier

  • #255: Calling completion handler failed due to incomplete runtime info

    PyObjC’s metadata system didn’t automatically set the call signature for blocks passed into a method implemented in Python. This causes problems when the ObjC or Swift block does not have signature information in the ObjC/blocks runtime.

  • Use MAP_JIT when allocating memory for the executable stubs for Python methods.

    With the “restricted” runtime you’ll have to add the “com.apple.security.cs.allow-jit” entitlement to use this flag, in earlier versions you’d have to use a different entitlement: “com.apple.security.cs.allow-unsigned-executable-memory”.

    The MAP_JIT flag is only used on macOS 10.14 or later.

  • Ensure that PyObjC can be built using /usr/bin/python on macOS 10.14

    This failed due the problems with header files in the SDK included with Xcode 10.

Version 5.1.1

  • Update metadata for Xcode 10.1

Version 5.1

  • Xcode 10 “GM” contains one difference from the last beta: the constant MLComputeUnitsCPUAndGPU in the CoreML bindings.

  • #222: Add a proxy for C’s “FILE*” type on Python 3. This is not necessary on Python 2 because the default IO stack on Python 2 already uses FILE* internally.

    This proxy type is very minimal and shouldn’t not be used for general I/O.

  • Bindings are up-to-date w.r.t. Xcode 10.1 (beta)

  • Updated the support code for framework wrappers to be able to emit deprecation warnings on the first import of a deprecated constants (functions and methods will only raise a deprecation warning when called).

    This is just an infrastructure change, the actual framework bindings do not yet contain the information used to emit deprecation warnings.

  • Add metadata for deprecation warnings to the “Contacts” framework

  • #252: Import ABCs from collections.abc instead of collections because the latter is deprecated.

  • #180, #251: Instances of most builtin value types and sequences (int, float, str, unicode, tuple, list, set, frozenset and dict) can now be written to archives that require secureCoding.

Version 5.0

Version 5.0 of PyObjC primarily adds support for macOS 10.14 (mojave), and also adds support for a couple of older frameworks that weren’t supported before.

Version 5.0b2

  • Added manual bindings for MTAudioProcessingTapCreate and MTAudioProcessingTapGetStorage in the MediaToolbox bindings.

  • Added manual bindings for CMIODeviceProcessAVCCommand and CMIODeviceProcessRS422Command in the CoreMediaIO bindings

  • Added bindings for the VideoToolbox framework introduced in macOS 10.8

  • Finished bindings for CoreMedia, I noticed during review that the bindings were far from finished.

  • Fixed problem with uninitialized memory in pyobjc-core

  • The CarbonCore bindings included a number of symbols that shouldn’t be exposed

Version 5.0b1

  • Bindings updated for Xcode 10 beta 6.

  • Add a custom binding for a number of structure types in CoreAudio:

    • AudioBuffer

    • AudioBufferList

    • AudioChannelDescription

    • AudioChannelLayout

    • AudioValueTranslation

    With this patch using APIs with these types should actually work.

  • #19: Fix deprecation warning in bridgesupport support module

    Patch by: Mickaël Schoentgen

  • Creating objc.ObjCPointer instances now results in a Python warning, instead of an unconditional message on stdout.


    The creation of these objects is a sign that APIs are not wrapped correctly, these objects are created for pointers where the bridge doesn’t know how to handle them properly.

  • System bridgesupport XML files (normally not used by PyObjC) can contain constant numbers with value “inf”, PyObjC now knows how to handle those.

  • Added bindings for the “Metadata” subframework of the “CoreServices” framework.

  • Added bindings for the “CarbonCore” subframework of the “CoreServices” framework.

    Most APIs in this subframework are not available to Python, only those APIs that are not deprecated and seem interesting are exposed.

  • The separate framework wrappers DictionaryServices, LaunchServices and SearchKit are deprecated, use the CoreServices bindings instead.

    These framework wrappers still exists, but are effectively aliases for CoreServices with this release. Because of this these bindings can expose more symbols than previously.

  • Fix unexpected exception when trying to call getattr on a framework wrapped with a name that isn’t a valid identifier.

  • #244: Bad metadata for CGPDFOperatorTableSetCallback

  • #247: Fix crash in regression test case

    One specific test in pyobjc-core crashed the interpreter when run separately. Because of this I’ve disabled an optimization that uses alloca instead of PyMem_Malloc to allocate memory for now.

Version 5.0a0

  • Adds support for macOS 10.14 (Mojave)

    This release updates the framework wrappers with support for new APIs in macOS 10.14 and adds bindings for the following new frameworks:

    • AdSupport

    • CoreAudio (new in macOS 10.0)

    • CoreAudioKit (new in macOS 10.4)

    • CoreMedia (new in macOS 10.7)

    • CoreMediaIO (new in macOS 10.7)

    • DiscRecording (new in macOS 10.2)

    • DiscRecordingUI (new in macOS 10.2)

    • DVDPlayback (new in macOS 10.3)

    • MediaToolbox

    • NaturalLanguage

    • Network

    • OSAKit (new in macOS 10.4)

    • UserNotifications

    • VideoSubscriberAccount

  • Support for CoreAudio, CoreMedia and MediaToolbox is limited in this release due to missing manual wrappers.

  • Added two features that can help with gating code on the version of macos:

    1. The constants “objc.MAC_OS_X_VERSION_CURRENT” can be compared with one of the “objc.MAC_OS_X_VERSION_…” constants.

    2. The function “objc.macos_avaiable(major, minor[, patch])” returns true if the current macOS version is at least the specified version, comparable with “@available” in Swift.

Version 4.2.2

  • Update metadata for Xcode 9.4

  • The binary release now includes wheels for both variants for the Python.org installer for python 3.6 and 3.7: 32- and 64-bit for macOS 10.6 or later, and 64-bit only for macOS 10.9 or later.

  • Ensure the context manager for NSAnimationContext defined in PyObjCTools.AppCategories actually works.

  • Fix convenience wrappers for Foundation.NSCache.

  • Fix convenience wrappers for Foundation.NSHashTable.

Version 4.2.1

  • Update metadata for Xcode 9.4 beta 2 (no changes)

  • Restore autodetection of –with-system-ffi, but ignore this python setting for /usr/bin/python because Apple doesn’t ship libffi headers.

Version 4.2

  • Add bindings to the BusinessChat framework introduced in macOS 10.13.4

  • Update metadata for Xcode 9.3

  • #233: Fix crash in Security.AuthorizationCopyRights() wrapper

  • #234: Fix crash in AuthorizationExecuteWithPrivileges() wrapper

    Reported by Vangelis Koukis

  • Ensure doctest can work with modules containing subclasses of NSObject

    Reported by Just van Rossum

  • #236: Importing can sometimes fail in multi-threaded scenarios

    Fix by Max Bélanger

  • Undeprecate treating struct wrappers as sequences. Removing this feature would break too much existing code, hence deprecating is not really an option. Furthermore, this would also break some nice idioms.

  • #17: Fix python 3 issues in PyObjCTools.AppHelper and PyObjCTools.Conversion

    Fix by Max Bélanger

Version 4.1

  • Protection against buffer overflow and negative indexes in __getitem__ and __setitem__ for objc.varlist instances.

  • Fix incorrect metadata for +[NSEvent addLocalMonitorForEventsMatchingMask:handler:]

  • Fix incorrect and misleading error message in the exception that is raised when return a value from a block that should not return a value.

  • #223: Fix hard crash when executing help(Cocoa)

    Fetching the help for PyObjC framework wrappers isn’t very useful due to the sheer size of the output (4.5 million lines of output for help(Cocoa) at the moment), but shouldn’t cause a hard crash of the interpreter.

    Reported by Dave Fuller

  • #218: Explicitly cause an ImportError when reloading `objc._objc`

    Reloading the PyObjC core extension now raises an ImportError because this cannot work and used to raise a rather vague error.

  • Updated metadata for Xcode 9.2

  • Added missing `MAC_OS_X_VERSION_*` constants

  • Fix memory error in struct wrappers which resulted in a use-after-free error in the initializer for structs.

  • #135: Add bindings for frameworks Security, SecurityFoundation and and SecurityInterface.

    The bindings for the Security framework don’t expose a number of older APIs that were deprecated in macOS 10.7.

  • #129: Add bindings to libdispatch.

    These bindings require macOS 10.8 or later, libdispatch was available earlier but macOS 10.8 changed the API in such a way that wrapping became a lot easier.


    Blocks scheduled using libdispatch are still subject to the Python GIL: just one block implemented in Python can run at any one time.

Version 4.0.1

  • #213: Fix signature for `-[NSObject forwardInvocation:]`

    Reported by user “pyrocat”

  • Updated metadata for Xcode 9.1

  • Changes to PyObjCTools.TestSupport to be able to include/exclude tests based on the minor release of macOS.

  • Some tweaks to fix test failures when running on OSX 10.5, 10.6, 10.9.


The stacktrace formatting of in PyObjCTools.Debugging (from the ExceptionHandling bindings) don’t work for PPC binaries because symbol resolution doesn’t work.

This is a known issue that won’t be fixed.

Version 4.0

  • #204: Metadata for CGPDFDictionaryGetObject was wrong

    Reported by Nickolas Pohilets.

  • Updated metadata for Xcode 9 GM.

  • #202: Add bindings for CGPDFDictionaryRef, CGPDFScannerRef CGPDFStreamRef and CGPDFStringRef to the Quartz bindings (including some minor updates to function metadata)

    Reported by Nickolas Pohilets.

  • #205: Add ability to read bytes from objc.varlist

    Instances of objc.varlist now have a method to return a memoryview that refers to the first section of the list:

    def as_buffer(self, count : int) -> memoryview

    This returns a memoryview the references the underlying memory for the first count elements in the list.

    Reported by Nickolas Pohilets.

  • Added bindings for the GameKit framework introduced in macOS 10.8.

  • Added bindings for the GameplayKit framework introduced in macOS 10.11.

    Note that these bindings are less useful than they could be because PyObjC currently does not support “vector” types that are used in some APIs.

Version 4.0b1

Version 3.3

New features:

  • #15: Fix crash when handling stack blocks

    Patch by Max Bélanger. Fixes a crash when a stackbased block is passed into python.

    Later updated with tests and a different implementation.

  • #192: 32/64-bit issue with AppHelper.endSheetMethod

    This helper decorator used the wrong signature string, which happens to work on 32-bit systems but not on 64-bit ones.

  • “pip install pyobjc” should now fail with a better error message when installing on a system that isn’t running macOS.

  • Updated framework wrappers for the API changes in the SDK shipped with Xcode 8.3.2.

  • Added new framework wrapper: “pyobjc-framework-CoreServices”.

    This exposes no new functionality for now, but makes it possible to access the functionality exposed by the “CoreServices” framework by using “import CoreServices”, instead of directly importing the name of the subframework.

  • Added new framework wrapper: “pyobjc-framework-iTunesLibrary”

    This is a wrapper for the iTunesLibrary framework located in “/Library/Frameworks”, which is a framework installed by iTunes that can be used to (read-only) access information about an iTunes library.

  • #178: Add basic example for the Contacts framework

    The Contacts framework now contains a very simple example that shows how to fetch contacts from the contact store. Apple’s documentation on the framework contains more comprehensive sample code, which should make it clear how to use the framework.

  • Add initial support for deprecation warnings in metadata

    Metadata files can now contain information for deprecation warnings for methods and functions. Users can turn on deprecation warnings using:

    import objc
    objc.deprecation_warnings = objc.MAC_OS_X_VERSION_10_6

    This will emit deprecation warnings for APIs that were deprecated in macOS 10.6 (or earlier).

    Note that this version does have metadata that uses the new functionality, that will be added in a future release.


  • The OC_Python* Objective-C classes used to expose Python objects to Objective-C don’t support secure coding, added a “supportsSecureCoding” implementation to make this explicit.

  • #182: The block signature registered in the ObjC runtime datastructures for Python blocks was wrong, which confuses Objective-C code that looks at the runtime data.

  • Fix requirement info in Collaboration setup.py.

    Patch by Alex Chekunkov.

  • #189: Invalid invocation of “atos” command on recent macOS versions

    The Objective-C exception logging code in pyobjc-framework-ExceptionHandling calls out to the “atos” command to get readable stack traces, that invocation caused problems on recent macOS versions.

Version 3.2.2


  • #162: Fix conversion of unicode python string to Objective-C “UniChar” array, it used to do the wrong thing when converting characters outside of the BMP.

    Fix by Ted Morin and Benoit Pierre.

Version 3.2.1


  • Small change to the shared setup.py code for framework wrappers to allow building wheels for wrappers without a C exention on any system.

    This was mostly done to make it easier to provide wheels in future releases.


  • Avoid build error with Python 2.7 when using the OSX 10.12 SDK, triggered when Python was build using MacPython support.

  • Compatibility definitions for MAC_OS_X_VERSION_10_10, MAC_OS_X_VERSION_10_11 and MAC_OS_X_VERSION_10_12 were wrong, adjusted these.

  • Fix obscure crash in test suite of pyobjc-core: the definition of a class that claims to conform to a protocol but didn’t actually conform could result in having a partial class definition in the Objective-C runtime.

  • Updated implementation for NSMutableArray.extend. This both avoids an error with the list interface tests in Python 3.6, and avoids unnecessary memory usage with large arguments.

Version 3.2

Backward compatibility note: Due to a change in the way the default method signature is calculated PyObjC is now more strict in enforcing the Python<->Objective-C mapping for selectors and a number of code patterns that were allowed before are no longer allowed, in particular the following method definitions raise objc.BadPrototypeError:

class MyObject (NSObject):
   def mymethod(self, a, b): ...
   def method_arg_(self, a, b, c): ...

If these methods are only used from Python and are never used from Objective-C the error can be avoided by decorating these methods with objc.python_method:

class MyObject (NSObject):
   def mymethod(self, a, b): ...

This cannot be used for methods used from Objective-C, for those you will have to rename the method or you will have to provide an appropriate selector explicitly.

  • Fix crash when using some APIs in the LaunchServices framework.

  • #100: Building with the Command Line Tools for Xcode installed caused build errors on OSX 10.10

  • Python 3.6 made a change to the bytecode format that affected the way PyObjC calculates the default method signature for Python methods.

    Earlier versions of PyObjC will therefore not work properly with Python 3.6.

  • Update metadata for macOS 10.12.1

    Note: Building PyObjC on macOS 10.12 requires Xcode 8.1 (or a later version)

  • Added bindings for the SafariServices and Intents frameworks, both introduced in macOS 10.12.

  • Added bindings for the MediaPlayer framework, introduced in macOS 10.12.1.

  • Add bindings for the ModelIO framework, introduced in OSX 10.11.

  • #153: Add missing metadata file to ApplicationServices bindings

  • #157: Bad reference to “_metadata” in ApplicationServices bindings

  • ApplicationServices framework didn’t do “from … import *” as was intended.

  • Don’t force the installation of py2app.

  • Fix build failure using the OSX 10.10 SDK.

  • #21: Tweak build procedure for PyObjC to avoid building pyobjc-core multiple times when using pip install pyobjc.

  • #123: Use Twisted’s cfreactor module in the examples using Twisted.

  • #148: Fix build issue for the MapKit bindings on a case sensitive filesystem.

  • Added bindings for the IOSurface framework (pyobjc-framework-IOSurface)

  • Added bindings for the NetworkExtension framework (pyobjc-framework-NetworkExtension)

  • #149: Fix compile problems with Anaconda

  • Fix SystemError for accessing a method whose __metadata__ cannot be calculated, found while researching issue #122.

  • #146: Don’t hang when running python setup.py build using PyPy.

    Note that PyPy still doesn’t work, this just ensures that the build fails instead of hanging indefinely.

  • #143: Fix calculation of default type signature for selectors

    Due to this change it is possible to use decorators like this:

    def decorator(func):
       def wrapper(*args, **kwds):
           return func(*args, **kwds)
       return decorator

    Before this patch PyObjC gave an error due to the signature of wrapper, and if wrapper was defined with an explicit self argument PyObjC would not give an error but would calculate the wrong method signature for wrapped methods.

    An unfortunate side effect of this change is that the argument count of methods must now match the implied argument count of the selector, that is a method with name someMethod_ must now have exactly two arguments (self and the argument implied by the underscore at the end).

    Use objc.python_method as a decorator for python methods that don’t use this convention and do no need to be registered with the Objective-C runtime as Objective-C selectors.

  • The bridge now considers the default arguments for a function when determining if the Python signature of a function is compatible with the Objective-C signature, that is the following method definition is valid:

    class MyObject (NSObject):
       def someMethod_(self, a, b=2): pass
  • The default selector calculated for Python methods with embedded underscores and without a closing underscore has changed, the embedded underscores are not translated to colons because the resulting Objective-C selector would not be valid.

    That is, in earlier versions the default selector for “some_method” would be “some:method”, and from this version on the default for selector for this method is “some_method”.

  • (Python 3) Methods and functions with keyword-only arguments that don’t have defaults cause a objc.BadPrototypeError exception when proxied to Objective-C because those can never be called from Objective-C without causing an exception.

Version 3.1.1

  • Sigh… A number for sdists were incomplete due to missing MANIFEST.in files.

Version 3.1

  • Fix value of FLT_MAX and FLT_MIN in framework bindings.

  • Fix for the functions in PyObjCTools.AppHelper: those functions didn’t work correctly when the calling thread didn’t have a runloop.

    Patch by Max Bélanger.

  • #126: Load the LaunchServices definitions through the CoreServices umbrella framework to avoid problems on OSX 10.11.

  • #124: Sporadic crash at program shutdown due to a race condition between Python interpreter shutdown and Cocoa cleanup.

    This is mostly a workaround, I don’t have a full solution for this yet and I’m not sure if one is possible.

  • Added objc.PyObjC_BUILD_RELEASE which contains the version of the SDK that was used to build PyObjC in the same format as the OSX availability macros.

  • #117: Added maxTimeout parameter to PyObjCTools.AppHelper.runConsoleEventLoop. The default value is 3 seconds, which means that the console eventloop will stop within 3 seconds of calling stopEventLoop.

  • Re-enable faster method calls for simple method calls.

  • Support OSX 10.10 in PyObjCTools.TestSupport (version comparison was too naive)

  • Add bindings for ApplicationServices, currently only the HIServices sub framework is exposed.

  • Add bindings for NetFS, introduced in OSX 10.7.

  • Add bindings for ImageCaptureCore. Initial patch by Max Bélanger.

  • Add bindings for IMServicePlugIn, introduced in OSX 10.7.

  • Add bindings for SceneKit, introduced in OSX 10.8.

  • Add bindings for CoreBluetooth, MapKit, AVKit, MediaLibrary, MediaAccessibility, GameController (all new in OSX 10.9)

  • Add bindings for FinderSync, CloudKit, CryptoTokenKit, MultipeerConnectivity, NotificationCenter (all new in OSX 10.10)

  • Add bindings for Contacts, ContactsUI, Photos, PhotosUI (new in OSX 10.11)

  • Added function objc.callbackPointer.

  • Updated bindings for AppKit, CoreData, CoreFoundation, CoreGraphics, CoreLocation, CoreText, CoreVideo, CoreWLAN, EventKit, FSEvents, ImageIO, ImageKit, JavaScriptCore, LaunchServices, OpenDirectory, PDFKit, QuartzComposer, QuartzCore, QuartzFilters, QuickLookUI, ServiceManagement, Social, StoreKit and WebKit with the new APIs introduced in OSX 10.9, 10.10 and 10.11.

  • Unchanged framework bindings: Collaboration, DictionaryServices, ExceptionHandling, InputMethodKit, InstallerPlugins, InstantMessage, InterfaceBuilderKit, LatentSemanticMapping, PreferencePanes, PubSub.


    InterfaceBuilderKit will likely be removed in a future version of PyObjC

  • TODO: DiskArbitration, GameController, SpriteKit bindings are incomplete

  • Fix hard crash with invalid type strings in metadata.

  • Default value for struct wrappers was incorrect for fields that have a type encoding that’s custom to PyObjC.

  • Fix a type string validation error that could cause PyObjC to continue processing beyond the end of a type string (which can effectively hang the python interpreter with 100% CPU usage)

  • Fix edge-case in NSCoding support that causes PyObjC to use proxy objects of the wrong type in some cases.

  • Fix incompatibility with Python 3.6 (where inspect.getargspec no longer exists)

  • Added (private) function objc._copyMetadataRegistry. This function returns a copy of the internal registry that’s used to find additional information about method signatures.

    Note that the data structure returned by this function is subject to change, that the data structure is undocumented and that modifying it does not affect the data used by PyObjC.

Version 3.0.5

  • PyObjC now uses the system libffi when CPython itself was compiled to use that version of libffi.

    Patch by Max Bélanger.

  • #111: BridgeSupport code failed when there are unions in the bridgesupport file due to a bug in the code that parses Objective-C encoded types.

  • BridgeSupport code didn’t work properly with Python 3.x

  • Add objc.MAC_OS_X_VERSION_10_10 and MAC_OS_X_VERSION_10_9.

  • #107: The code that checked for compliance to formal protocols didn’t look at parent classes to determine if a class implements the protocol.

  • Fix build issue for python 3.

Version 3.0.4

  • #102, #103: Fix installation on OSX 10.10 when using “pip install pyobjc”.

  • issue`:95`:

    Fix crash when sys.modules contains an object that is not a string.

  • Fix crash on OSX 10.8 or later when using a 32-bit build and accessing an instance of “Object” (that is, pre-Nextstep classes).

  • #106: Fix a crash when using blocks without metadata, but with a block signature from the block runtime.

  • #109: PyObjCTools.MachSignals likely hasn’t worked at all since PyObjC 2.0 because it uses a C module that was never ported to PyObjC 2.0. This private module is reintroduced in this release (with a slightly changed API)

Version 3.0.3

  • Fix a number of OSX 10.10 support issues.

Version 3.0.2

  • #99: Installation failed with recent versions of setuptools due to invalid assumptions in the PyObjC setup script.

  • #93: For a objc.PyObjCPointer object ptr.pointerAsInteger returned a 32-bit value on 64-bit systems.

  • #92: Removed dependency on pyobjc-framework-GameKit from the pyobjc package, GameKit isn’t packaged yet.

Version 3.0.1

  • #86: Fix installation issue with setuptools 3.6.

  • #85: Remove debug output from the wrapper for NSApplicationMain.

  • #82: NSArray.__iter__ was accedently removed in PyObjC 3.0

  • PyObjCTools.Debugging didn’t work properly on recent OSX versions (at least OSX 10.9) because /usr/bin/atos no longer worked.

Version 3.0

  • #50: Accessing Objective-C methods on “magic cookie” variables, like LaunchServices.kLSSharedFileListItemLast would crash the interpreter.

    This affected code like:

    from LaunchServices import kLSSharedFileListItemLast
    kLSSharedFileListItemLast == kLSSharedFileListItemLast
  • Added a decorator “python_method” than can be used to decorate methods that should not be registered with the Objective-C runtime and should not be converted to a Objective-C selector.


    class MyClass (NSObject):
        def fromkeys(self, keys):

    This makes it easier to add a more “pythonic” API to Objective-C subclasses without being hindered by PyObjC’s conventions for naming methods.

  • #64: Fix metadata for Quartz.CGEventKeyboardSetUnicodeString and Quartz.CGEventKeyboardGetUnicodeString.

  • #77: Passing a bound selector as a block argument failed when the block was actually called because the trampoline that calls back to Python accidentally ignored the bound self argument.

  • #76: It is now possible to pass None to a method expecting a block argument, as with normal object arguments the Objective-C method receives a nil value.

  • Python integer values with values between 2 ** 63 and 2**64 are now proxied as plain NSNumber objects, not as using PyObjC specific subclass of NSNumber, to avoid a problem with writing them to binary plist files.

    This is a workaround and will likely be changed in some future version.

  • inspect.signature works for all functions and methods implemented in C, when using Python 3.4 or later.

  • The module PyObjCTools.NibClassBuilder is not longer available. It only worked with ancient versions of Interface Builder (pre-Xcode)

  • The wrapper type for opaque pointers didn’t have a “__module__” attribute, which breaks code that (correctly) assumes that all types have such an attribute.

  • Archiving now supports nested definitions and method references, simular to the support of those added to pickle protocol 4 in Python 3.4.

    Encoding nested classes requires support for the __qualname__ attribute, and hence requires Python 3.3. Decoding should work with earlier python versions as well.

  • Add objc.autorelease_pool, a context manager for managing an autorelease pool. Usage:

    with objc.autorelease_pool():

    This is equivalent to:

    _pool = NSAutoreleasePool.alloc().init()
        del _pool
  • Added objc.registerABCForClass to make it possible to register a class with a number of ABC classes when the class becomes available.

  • NSDecimalNumber can now be instantatiated as a normal Python object:

    value = NSDecimalNumber(4)
  • NSData and NSMutableData can now be instantiated as a normal Python object:

       value = NSData(someBytes)
       value = NSData()
  • NSDecimal now coerces the other value to NSDecimal in coercions. Because of you can now order instances of NSDecimal and int.

  • PyObjCTools.KeyValueCoding.ArrayOperators and PyObjCTools.KeyValueCoding.arrayOperators were accidentally public names in previous releases, and are now removed. Use the array operators in the KVC protocol instead.

  • Restructured the “convenience” method code. This shouldn’t have user visible effects, but makes the code easier to maintain.

  • objc.addConvienceForSelector no longer exists, it isn’t possible to provide this functionality with the current implementation of the bridge.

  • The build of pyobjc-core can now be configured by editing setup.cfg (or providing arguments to the build_ext command), instead of editing the setup.py file.

    Currently the following options are available for the build_ext command:

    • --use-system-libffi: When this option is used the build will use /usr/lib/libffi.dylib instead of the embedded copy of libffi. The latter is the default is and is better tested.

    • --deployment-target=VAL: The value of MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET to use, defaults to the deployment target used for building Python itself

    • --sdk-root=VAL: Path to the SDK root used to build PyObjC, or “python” to use the default SDK selected by distutils. The default is to use the most recent SDK available.

  • The lazy importer has smarter calculation of the __all__ attribute, which should speed up ‘from Cocoa import *’.

  • BUGFIX: using a method definition with only *args and **kwds used to crash the interpreter, the now once again raise a TypeError exception.

  • The metadata for pyobjc-framework-Accounts was incomplete, fixed that.

  • objc.callbackFor() now also adds a __metadata__ method to decorated functions. This is primarily to make it easier to test the metadata values.

  • The __typestr__ attribute of opaque pointer types is now a byte string, in previous versions this was an instance of str (this only affects Python 3 support)

  • The JavaScriptCore bindings (in pyobjc-framework-WebKit) are now more usable because types like “JSValueRef” are now exposed to Python (they were missing due to incomplete metadata).

  • Exclude a number of keys from the metadata dictionary when they have the default value (in the result from the __metadata__() method on methods and functions)

  • The “lazy” modules used by framework wrappers now always have a __loader__ attribute (as required by PEP 302). The value can be None when there is no explicit loader (such as when importing from the filesystem in Python 3.2 or earlier).

  • Method (and function) metadata is stored in a more compact manner, reducing the memory use of PyObjC applications.

  • Removed support for hiding “protected” methods, objc.setHideProtected() is gone, it complicated the code without real advantages.

    Reasons for this:

    • There were some conflicts because a class implemented two selectors that caused the same python method to be added to the class __dict__. Which one was added was basically random.

    • The functionality required PyObjC to maintain a full __dict__ for classes, even when most Cocoa methods were never called. Ensuring that the contents of __dict__ is correct in the face of Objective-C categories and class patches required some very expensive code.

    As a side effect of this some classes may no longer have the convenience methods they had in earlier releases (in particular classes that are not mentioned in Apple’s documentation).

  • #3: The bridge now lazily looks for Objective-C methods as they are used from Python, instead of trying to maintain a class __dict__ that mirrors the method list of the Objective-C class.

    Maintaining the __dict__ was very expensive, on every method call the bridge would check if the method list had changed and there is no cheap way to perform that check.


    I haven’t done performance tests at this time, it is not yet clear if this work will make the bridge more efficient or that there are other more important bottlenecks.

  • The default translation from a python name to a selector was slightly changed:

    • double underscores inside the name are no translated to colons, that is ‘foo__bar_’ is translated to ‘foo__bar:’, not ‘foo::bar:’

    • if the Python name start with two uppercase letters and an underscore, that first underscore is not translated into an colon. Two leading capitals are often used as a way to add some kind of namespacing to selector names (and avoid conflicts when a method with the same name is added later by the library provider)

  • Added __new__ method to NSString, it is now possible to explicitly convert a python string to a Cocoa string with NSString(someString)

  • Added __eq__ and __ne__ methods to native selector objects, which mean you can now check if two method objects are the same using ‘sel1 == sel2’. This works both for bound and unbound selectors.

  • NSData.bytes() could raise an exception on some version of Python 3 when the data object is empty. The function now returns an empty bytes object instead.

  • NSMutableData.mutableBytes() raises an exception when the data object has a 0-sized buffer. (see also the previous bullet)

  • Add attribute __objclass__ to objc.selector instances as an alias for definingClass. The name __objclass__ is used by builtin method objects for the same purpose as definingClass.

    The new attribute is needed to ensure that help(NSObject) works (although all methods are shown as data descriptors, not methods)

  • :class`objc.selector` no longer implements __set__, which means it is now classified as a method descriptor by the inspec module, which gives nicer output in pydoc.

    This doesn’t change any functionality beyond that, it is still possible to overwrite methods and not possible to delete them.

  • objc.native_selector and objc.function now have a (minimal) docstring with information object. This makes help for Cocoa classes and functions more useful.

    As a side-effect of this the docstring is no longer writeable.


    The docstring show the interface of a block with a function prototype instead of the proper C declaration, that makes the implementation slightly easier and the function prototype syntax is slightly easier to read for users that aren’t C experts.

  • objc.selector, objc.function and objc.IMP now have an implementation for the “__signature__” property when using Python 3.3 or later. This makes it possible to use inspect.signature() with these objects.

  • It should now be possible to write tuples with more than INT_MAX elements to an NSArchive. Those archives cannot be read back by older versions of PyObjC (or python running in 32-bit mode), but archives that contain only smaller tuples can be read back by earlier versions.

  • #38: Struct wrappers and opaque pointer types now implement support for sys.getsizeof(), as do objc.FSRef, objc.FSSpec, and Objective-C classes.

    The size of Objective-C instances is not entirely correct, and cannot be. The sizeof function only reports the size of the proxy object and the basic size of the Objective-C object. It does not report additional buffers used by the object, which for example means that a too low size is reported for Cocoa containers like NSArray.

  • Opaque pointer objects now have a method “__c_void_p__” that returns a ctypes.void_p for the same pointer.

  • Added an API to “pyobjc-api.h” that makes it easier to explicitly load function references in manual function wrappers. This replaces the compiler support for weak linking, which was needed because weak linking did not work properly with clang (Xcode 4.5.1). This also makes it possible to compile in support for functions that aren’t available on the build platform (in particular, when building on 10.8 the Quartz bindings now contain support for some functions that were dropped in 10.8 and which will be available through pyobjc when deploying to 10.7)

  • The framework wrappers no longer export a “protocols” submodule. Those submodules were deprecated in 2.4 and did not contain information that is useful for users of PyObjC.

  • Dropped the “objc.runtime” attribute (which was deprecated in PyObjC 2.0)

  • Dropped depcreated APIs objc.pluginBundle, objc.registerPlugin. Py2app has used a different mechanism for years now.

  • Dropped deprecatd APIs: objc.splitStruct, objc._loadFunctionList. Both have been replaced by newer APIs in PyObjC 2.4.

  • Foundation’s NSDecimal type is exposed in the objc module as well.

    This was done to remove a dependency from the pyobjc-core package to pyobjc-framework-Cocoa.

  • The type objc.NSDecimal is now an immutable type, just like decimal.Decimal and other Python value types.

    Because of this the interface of Foundation.NSScanner.scanDecimal_ has changed, in previous versions it is used as:

    dec = Foundation.NSDecimal()
    ok = scanner.scanDecimal_(dec)

    In the current version it is called just like any other method with an output argument:

    ok, dec = scanner.scanDecimal_(None)
  • The C code is more careful about updating Python reference counts, in earlier versions it was possible to trigger access to a field in a datastructure that was being deallocated because the calls to Py_DECREF for the field happened before setting the field to NULL or a new value. This could then result in a hard crash due to accessing freed memory.

  • Bugfix: objc.NSDecimal(2.5) works with python 3 (caused a confusing exception due to buggy code before).

  • Bugfix: the support for round for objc.NSDecimal always rounded down, instead of using the normal rounding rules used by other methods.

  • PybjC no longer supports the CoreFoundation bindings in the “Carbon.CF” module in the standard library for Python 2. The “Carbon.CF” module is not present in Python 3, and is unmaintained in Python 2.

  • The ‘struct sockaddr’ conversion code now understands the AF_UNIX address family.

  • The function “objc.setSignatureForSelector” has been removed (and was deprecated in 2.3), use the metadata system instead.”

  • The ‘returnTypes’ and ‘argumentTypes’ parameters for ‘objc.selector’ have been removed (they were deprecated in version 2.5). These were an attempt to use type encodings as used in Py_BuildValue() and AFAIK were never used in real code.

  • The header “pyobjc-api.h” has been cleaned up:


    “pyobjc-api.h” is used by extension modules in the PyObjC framework wrappers but is not intended to be a public API. Please let me (Ronald) know if you use this API, I’m trying to get the API as small as possible and that might lead to its complete removal in a future version of PyObjC.

    • Py_ARG_SIZE_T is no longer defined by pyobjc-api.h (use “n” instead)

    • Removed the following functions from the API (PYOBJC_API_VERSION is now 20) because they aren’t used by PyObjC:

      • PyObjC_PerformWeaklinking (and struct PyObjC_WeakLink)

      • PyObjCRT_RemoveFieldNames

      • PyObjC_is_ascii_string

      • PyObjC_is_ascii_prefix

      • PyObjCObject_Check

      • PyObjCClass_Check

      • PyObjCSelector_Check

      • PyObjCObject_ClearObject

      • PyObjCClass_New

      • PyObjCErr_ToObjC

      • PyObjC_RegisterSignatureMapping

      • PyObjCRT_AlignOfType

      • PyObjCRT_SELName

      • PyObjCRT_SimplifySignature

      • PyObjC_RegisterStructType

      • PyObjCObject_IsUninitialized

      • PyObjCObject_New

      • PyObjCCreateOpaquePointerType


      There will be further cleanup of this API before the 3.0 release.

      Added a name argument to PyObjCPointerWrapper_Register.

  • The KVO implementation for Cocoa subclasses used to ignore exceptions in the implementation of [obj willChangeValueForKey:] and [obj didChangeValueForKey:] and no longer does so.

    One side effect of this is that willChangeForForKey_ and didChangeValueForKey_ can now cause user visible exceptions when “__useKVO__” is true (the default) and these methods are implemented in Python.

  • PyObjC 3 requires a compiler that supports Objective-C with C99 as the base language.

  • PyObjC raises an exception instead of creating instances of objc.PyObjCPointer when you set objc.options.unknown_pointer_raises to True.

    The default is currently False, that will be changed in a future version and the entire objc.ObjCPointer class will likely be removed some releases after that.

  • Configuration options are now attributes of special object objc.options.

    The following functions are therefore now deprecated and will be removed in PyObjC 3.1:

  • Removed objc._setClassSetUpHook, an internal method that is not used anymore.

  • Removed +[OC_PythonObject setVersion:encoder:decoder:], +[OC_PythonObject pythonifyStructTable], +[OC_PythonObject depythonifyTable].

All were private methods used by the core bridge and are no longer necessary.

  • Added objc.registerSetType() and objc.registerDateType(), with simular semantics as the already existing functions objc.registerMappingType() and objc.registerListType().

  • Moved the logic for creating Objective-C proxies for Python objects from class methods on OC_PythonObject, OC_PythonArray, OC_PythonDictionary, OC_PythonSet and OC_PythonDate to a C function to simplify this logic and make it easier to further optimize.

    Because of this a number of (private) class methods are no longer available. This shouldn’t affect normal code because these methods aren’t part of the public API for PyObjC.

  • Added bindings to the CoreWLAN framework (macOS 10.6 or later) in package “pyobjc-framework-CoreWLAN”

  • Added bindings to the AVFoundation framework (macOS 10.7 or later) in package “pyobjc-framework-AVFoundation”

  • The __dict__ for anObject.pyobjc_instanceMethods and AClass.pyobjc_classMethods is now read-only instead of read-write.

    Updates of __dict__ already did not affect anything (the value is calculated on access).

  • Removed workarounds for KVO bugs in macOS 10.3.9, which means KVO will likely not work properly anymore on that release of OS X.

  • Earlier versions of PyObjC accidentally exposed -[NSObject respondsToSelector:] as NSObject.respondsToSelector() as well as the expected NSObject.respondsToSelector_(). The first incorrect binding no longer works.

  • Python 3 only: NSKeyedArchives with a bytes object can now be read back by a pure Objective-C program (that program will decode it as an NSData object).

    Because of this the encoding for method for OC_PythonData was changed, archives created by PyObjC 3.0 can therefore not be read back by earlier PyObjC versions (but PyObjC 3.0 can read archives created by those older versions)

  • NSKeyedArchives with a python list or tuple (but not subclasses) can now be read back as NSArrays in Objective-C programs.

  • NSKeyedArchives with a python set or frozenset (but not subclasses) can now be read back as NSSets in Objective-C programs.

    This required a change in the format used to create the archive, which means that archives with a set or frozenset (but not subclasses) cannot be read back by earlier versions of PyObjC.

  • When writing instances of list, tuple, dict, set and frozenset to an NSArchive, but not an NSKeyedArchiver, the objects are stored with the same encoding as the corresponding Cocoa class.

    This has two side effects: the archive can be read back by pure Objective-C code and when you read back the archive using PyObjC you’ll get instances of Cocoa classes instead of the native python classes.

  • -[OC_PythonEnumerator nextObject] now returns [NSNull null] instead of nil, to be compatible with the behavior of item getters/setters and to avoid ending iteration premature when a Python sequence contains None.

  • Fixed a number of issues with None as a member of a set-like object proxied by OC_PythonSet. The easiest way to trigger the issue in earlier versions:

    assert {None} == NSSet.setWithArray([None])

    These expose sets with the same members to ObjC code, but those objects didn’t compare equal.

  • Python 2 only: NSDictionary instances now have the same internal other as dict instances with the same value, that is cmp(anNSDict1, anNSDict2) == ``cmp(dict(anNSDict1), dict(anNSDict2)).

  • In previous versions of PyObjC instances of Foundation.NSDecimal behaved as if they had the same methods as Foundation.NSDecimalNumber. In 3.0 PyObjC no longer exposes these methods.

  • Python blocks (that is, Python callables passed to a method/function that expects an Objective-C block argument) now include an Objective-C signature string (introduced in “ABI.2010.3.16”).

  • PyObjC now supports blocks that have a large struct as the return value (for example a block that returns an NSRect structure).

  • Reduced the number of unnecessary methods implemented by the various OC_Python* classes, this might affect some Objective-C code that directly uses these classes instead of just using the interface of their superclasses.

  • del NSObject.__version__ crashed the interpreter because the setter didn’t guard against deletion attempts.

  • del aSelector.isHidden crashed the interpreter (see above)

  • Class objc.ObjCPointer was not exposed in the objc module.

  • The implementation of objc.ObjCPointer didn’t have a proper implementation of __getattribute__ and that made objects of this class even more useless than they should have been.

  • Values of objc.ObjCPointer no longer have an unpack method (the method has been inaccisible for several releases and its implementation as unsafe)

  • The type attribute of objc.ObjCPointer now starts with objc._C_PTR (that is, the type attribute is the encoded type of the pointer, instead of the encoded type of the pointed-to value).

  • Framework wrappers no longer have a ‘protocols’ submodule, use objc.protocolNamed() to access a protocol.

  • -[OC_PythonObject valueForKeyPath:] and -[OC_PythonObject setValue:forKeyPath:] now call helper functions in PyObjCTools.KeyValueCoding, just like -[OC_PythonObject valueForKey:] and -[OC_PythonObject setValue:forKey:].

    This should give better results in some edge cases when dealing with complicated keypaths.

Version 2.5.2

  • “easy_install pyobjc” always tried to install the FSEvents binding, even when running on OSX 10.4 (where that API is not available).

  • objc.ObjCPointer didn’t implement __getattribute__.

    (reported by private mail)

  • Implementing a python method that has a block as one of its arguments didn’t work. It now works when there is metadata that describes the method signature.

    (reported by private mail)

  • BUGFIX: a method definition like this now once again raises TypeError instead of crashing the interpreter:

    def myMethod(*args):

    (reported by private mail)

Version 2.5.1

  • PyObjC could crash when calling a method that is dynamically generated (that is, the selector is not present in the class according to the Objective-C runtime but the instance responds to it anyway).

    The cases that used to crash now raise objc.error instead.


    It is highly unlikely that real code would run into this, found while working on PyObjC 3.x.

  • When writing a python unicode object to an NSArchiver or NSKeyedArchiver the object is now stored exactly the same as a normal NSString, and will be read back as such.

    This increases interoperability with code that expects to read back a non-keyed archive in a different process. An example of this is the use of Growl (see issue #31)

    Instances of subclasses of unicode are not affected by this change, and can only be read back by other PyObjC programs.

  • #43: It was no longer possible to create instances of LaunchServices.LSLaunchURLSpec due to incomplete metadata.

  • #41: the ‘install.py’ script in the root of pyobjc repository failed to perform an install when running in a clean checkout of the tree.

  • #44: the various Cocoa frameworks only export @protocol definitions when they happen to be used by code in the framework. Added extensions to the various framework wrappers to ensure that all protocols are available to python code.

  • Opaque pointer types now can be constructed with a “c_void_p” keyword argument that contains a ctypes.c_void_p value for the pointer.

    This is the reverse of the __c_void_p__() method that was added earlier.

  • #46: It was not possible to use the Quartz.CoreGraphics module on OSX 10.5 when the binary was build on 10.8 (and using a 10.5 deployment target).

    Simular issues may be present in some of the other framework wrappers, there will be a more generic fix for this issue in a future release.

Version 2.5

  • Add conversion to/from ctypes.c_void_p to proxies for Cocoa objects.

    To use:

    anObject = NSArray.array()
    void_p = anObject.__c_void_p__()
    # use void_p with ctypes
    otherObject = NSObject(c_void_p=voip_p)
    assert anObject is otherObject

    Note that it is save to construct the python proxy from NSObject, the class will return an instance of the correct proxy type (in this example an instance of NSArray)

  • Fixed problem where the result of anObject.__cobject__() could not be converted back to a PyObjC object again.

  • A number of framework wrappers have a “protocols” submodule containing protocol objects (for example the module ‘Foundation.protocol’). Use of these modules is deprecated, they will be removed in PyObjC 3.0.

    Use objc.protocolNamed() to access protocols instead.

  • Instances of objc.ivar now have slots for introspection:

    • __typestr__: The type encoding

    • __name__: The Objective-C name

    • __isOutlet__: True if the instance variable is an IBOutlet

    • __isSlot__: True if the instance variable is a Python slot

  • Added implementation of ‘==’ and ‘!=’ for selectors defined in Python that is slightly smarter than the default (identity based) implementation in Python.

    This is mostly done for the PyObjC unittests and shouldn’t affect user code.

  • #30: Explicitly check if the compiler works, and try to fall back to clang if it doesn’t. This uses a simular algorithm as the fix for <https://bugs.python.org/issue13590> in Python’s tracker.

  • #22: Reimplement support for bridgesupport files

    This reintroduces objc.parseBridgeSupport and objc.initFrameworkWrapper, both are reimplemented in Python (previous version used C code)


    The implementation is currently barely tested and therefore likely contains bugs.

  • Struct types created by the framework wrappers once again create class methods on objc.ivar to generate instance variables of that type:

    myLocation = objc.ivar.NSPoint()

    This has the same result as:

    myLocation = objc.ivar(typer=NSPoint.__typestr__)
  • objc.IBAction() now raises TypeError when the argument is None.

  • objc.instancemethod() is now actually exported by the objc package.

  • objc.accessor() and objc.typedAccessor() were not 64-bit safe.

  • objc.accessor() and objc.typedAccessor() didn’t support the entire set of KVC accessors.

  • Add methods “_asdict” and “_replace” and field “_fields” to the struct wrapper types. These new attributes mirror the collections.namedtuple interface.


    In the long run I’d like to make struct wrappers immutable to allow using them as dictionary keys. This is a first step in that direction and makes it possible to verify that immutable struct wrappers are usable.

  • Added objc.createStructAlias(), and deprecated objc.registerStructAlias(). The new function has a “name” argument and can register types with the objc.ivar type (see previous item)

  • Add explicit deprecation warnings to objc.CFToObject and objc.ObjectToCF. Both functions barely function at all and will be removed with PyObjC 3.0.

  • objc.CFToObject and objc.ObjectToCF are no longer available when using Python 3.x, the APIs are used for MacPython support and that part of the standard library is not available with Python 3.x.

  • objc.splitStruct is renamed to objc.splitStructSignature and now actually works. The old name is temporarily available as an alias.

  • Fix refcounting leak in objc.splitSignature.

  • objc._loadFunctionList is renamed to objc.loadFunctionList and is fully documented. The old name is temporarily available as an alias.

  • Move (deprecated) decorator “signature” from objc._functions to objc._descriptors, and remove the former module.


    The names op submodules of objc are implementation details, don’t import them directly.

  • The optional argument for the decorator objc.selectorFor() was broken

  • The PyObjCTools.KeyValueCoding.kvc wrapper __setattr__ wrapper incorrectly set attributes on itself as well as on the wrapped object (the latter using Key-Value Coding)

  • Renamed (private) function injectSuffixes to inject_suffixes to match the other code in objc._dyld.

  • Slight restructuring of objc._pythonify to reduce code duplication between the python 2.x and python 3.x cases.

  • Removed deprecated methods from PyObjCTools.TestSupport

  • collections.Sequence objects are now automatically proxied as NSArray instances

  • collections.Mapping objects are now automatically proxies as NSDictionary instances

  • Removed some objects and functions from objc._bridges that weren’t public and weren’t used by PyObjC itself:

    • BRIDGED_STRUCTURES: mapping of python type to proxy class

    • BRIDGED_STRUCTURES2: mapping of python type to proxy class (not used at all)

    • BRIDGED_TYPES: mapping of python type to proxy class

    • _bridgePythonTypes: uses BRIDGED_STRUCTURES and BRIDGED_TYPES to update bridge data

    _bridgePythonTypes was called unconditionally, but never did anything because the data structures were empty and no code adds anything to them.

  • Improved documentation

  • For Objective-C blocks: try to extract the block signature from the (Objective-)C runtime when there is no metadata for the block. The block signature is available only when the code that creates the block is compiled using a recent enough compiler (although “recent enough” is fairly old by now)

  • Fixes some issues with objc.object_property which were found by improved unittests. In particular:

    • The selector names for boolean properties were wrong

    • Properties with a “depends_on” list didn’t inherit properly

    • Properties that were used in subclasses didn’t generate the correct KVO events when they were observed.

    • KVO issues with computed (read-only) properties

  • Fixed some issues with objc.array_property and objc.set_property that were found by much improved unittests.

  • Fixed issues with PyObjCTools.KeyValueCoding that were found by improved unittests:

    • getKey didn’t work properly on dictionaries (dictionaries were treated as sequences)

    • getKeyPath(list, "@avg.field") didn’t work when field wasn’t a valid key for all

      items in the list, and likewise for the @sum’, @min’, @max’ special keys.

    • getKeyPath didn’t raise the correct exception for empty key paths

    • @unionOfObjects and @distinctUnionOfObjects operators for Python sequences didn’t raise an exception when the selected keypath didn’t exist on an item of the sequence.

    • @unionOfArrays and @distinctUnionOfArrays operators for Python sequences didn’t raise an exception when the selected keypath didn’t exist on an item of the sequence.

    • @distinctUnionOfArrays and @distinctUnionOfObjects didn’t work properly when

      the keypath pointed to objects that weren’t hashable.

    • @distinctUnionOfSets operator was not present at all.

  • ‘PyObjCTools.KeyValueCoding.setKey’ now sets keys in dictionaries, that is:

    >>> a = {}
    >>> setKey(a, 'foo', 42)
    >>> a
    {'foo': 42 }
  • ‘PyObjCTools.KeyValueCoding.setKey(object, ‘key’, value)’ now sets attribute ‘key’ when the object already has that attribute, before looking at ‘_key’. This avoids that setKey changes the underlying storage for a common Python property pattern:

    class Record (object):
       def prop(self):
           return self._prop
       def prop(self, value):
           self._prop = calculate_using(value)

    Until PyObjC 2.5 the property setter for ‘prop’ would not be called when using KeyValueCoding.

  • Removed macOS 10.2 (!) compatibility from PyObjCTools.KeyValueCoding.

  • PyObjCTools.KeyValueCoding has undocumented attributes ‘ArrayOperators’ and ‘arrayOperators’, both will be removed in a future release.

  • Using NSArchiver or NSKeyedArchiver to encode and then decode a python list or tuple could result in an unexpected value. In particular, if any element of the sequence was None before archiving it would by NSNull.null() when read back.

  • Using NSArchiver or NSKeyedArchiver to encode and decode (pure) python objects didn’t always work correctly. Found by improved unittests.

  • Using NSArchiver or NSKeyedArchiver to encode and decode bytes objects in Python 3 would result in an instance of NSData instead of bytes.

  • The implementation of cmp() for NSSet instances now matches the behavior of regular python sets, that is calling cmp(anNSSet, aValue) will raise a TypeError exception unless both arguments are the same object (anNSSet is aValue).

  • #36: explicitly document that PyObjC does not support the Objective-C Garbage Collection system (introduced in OSX 10.5, deprecated in OSX 10.8), and also mention this in the documentation for the screen saver framework because the screen saver engine uses GC on OSX 10.6 and 10.7.

  • #37: Fix runtime link error with EPD (Enthought Python Distribution), which doesn’t include the pymactoolbox functionality.

  • Various improvements to the documentation

Version 2.4.1


2.41 was never released, all bugfixes are in the 2.4 branch as well as the 2.5 release.

  • Cocoa wrappers: fix metadata for copy, mutableCopy, copyWithZone: and mutableCopyWithZone:

  • Fix for issue 3585235 on SourceForge: the threading helper category on NSObject didn’t work due to a typo (defined in the Cocoa bindings)

    Fix is based on a patch by “Kentzo” with further updates and tests by Ronald.

  • Rename ReadMe.txt to README.txt to work around misfeature in the sdist command in distutils.

  • #28: Avoid crash when using CGEventTabProxy values.

  • #33: “easy_install pyobjc” no longer tries to install the InterfaceBuilderKit bindings on OSX 10.7 or later.

Version 2.4


Sadly enough this changelog is incomplete.

  • Fix crash when unarchiving a Python object.

  • Add missing calls to [super init] in the implementation of OC_PythonUnicode and OC_PythonString (the ObjC proxies for python’s unicode and str types)

  • objc.addConvenienceForSelector is deprecated, primarily to make it possible to restructure the pyobjc internals.

  • Workaround for bug in pip that resulted in pyobjc-core not being pip installable. Patch by Marc Abramowitz.

  • Creating new formal protocols now uses the new runtime API that was introduced in OSX 10.7. Because of this it is now possible to create new formal protocols in 64-bit code (when running on OSX 10.7 or later)

  • Codebase should work again when Python using --enable-unicode=ucs4.

  • BUG: Avoid crashes in calculating with NSDecimal values in Python 3

  • Implement ‘//’ operator for NSDecimal and NSDecimalNumber.

  • Implement support for the round builtin in NSDecimal and NSDecimalNumber

  • There is now limited support for packed struct definitions. This requires that the struct is wrapped using objc.createStructType.

    Struct packing is not described in the encoding string for a structure, which is why special support is needed.

  • objc.registerStructAlias now returns the alias type instead of None

  • In Python 3.x there is a new way to explicitly specify which (informal) protocols a class conforms to:

    class MyClass (NSObject, protocols=[Protocol1, Protocol2]):

    Python 2.x does not support this syntax, you can still use the following code there:

    class MyClass (NSObject, Protocol1, Protocol2):

    Note: The Python 2.x style works up to Python 3.2. In Python 3.3 and later the Python 2.x style declaration no longer works due to changes in the language.

  • It is also possible to specify the protocols that a class conforms to using a “__pyobjc_protocols__” attribute in the class body. This has the same interface as the “protocols” keyword argument in Python 3.x.

    This is primarily meant to be used by code that needs to work in Python 2 as well as Python 3.

  • Updated Python support. With this release PyObjC supports Python 2.6 and later, including Python 3.3 (which has a completely new representation for unicode strings)

    NOTE: Support for 3.3 is very much work in progress right now, there have been changes for the new unicode representation, but more changes are required.

    Known issues:

    • metadata conflict error when explicitly implementing a prototype

    • one test failure w.r.t. unichar argument arrays

    Furthermore there are two refcounting test failures in both 3.2 and 3.3

  • Add objc.setObjCPointerIsError and objc.getObjCPointerIsError.

    By default PyObjC will create a PyObjCPointer object when it tries to convert a pointer it doesn’t know about to Python. These values are fairly useless and obvious an indication that an API is wrapped improperly.

    With objc.setObjCPointerIsError(True) you can tell the bridge to raise an exception instead of creating these values.

  • -[OC_PythonNumber compare:] calls super when the other value is an NSNumber and the Python value can be represented using a basic C type.

    This could slightly affect the results of comparing Python and Cocoa numbers, and avoids unbounded recursion when comparing Python numbers with NSDecimalNumbers on OSX 10.7 or later.

  • Add implementations for methods from the NSComparisonMethods informal protocol to OC_PythonNumber

  • Add ‘__cmp__’ method when the Objective-C class implements the ‘compare:’ selector.

  • Introduced a way to compile bridgesupport data and lazily load wrappers.

    Avoid using “from Cocoa import *” to get the most benefits from this, use either “import Cocoa” or “from Cocoa import NSObject”.

  • objc.initFrameworkWrapper is now deprecated, switch to the new compiled metadata code instead.

  • objc.allocateBuffer now returns a bytearray on python >= 2.6, it used to return a buffer object in Python 2.

  • objc.FSRef.from_pathname actually works instead of always raising

    a TypeError.

  • objc.getAssociatedObject, objc.setAssociatedObject and objc.removeAssociatedObjects are wrappers for the corresponding functions in the Objective-C runtime API. These functions are only available when PyObjC was build on a system running OSX 10.6 or later, and the script is also running on such as system.

    The policy argument for objc.setAssociatedObject is optional and defaults to objc.OBJC_ASSOCIATION_RETAIN.

Version 2.3

  • Add some experimental code that slightly reduces the amount of memory used when loading bridgesupport files.

    Further work is needed to investigate what causes the memory usage to increase as much as it does, sadly enough Instruments doesn’t play nice with --with-pymalloc and for some reason ‘import Foundation’ crashes with --without-pymalloc.

  • “<struct>” definitions in the bridgesupport files can now have an alias attribute containing the name of Python type that should be used to proxy values of this type.

    This is used in the Quartz bindings to ensure that CGRect and NSRect (from the Foundation framework) map onto the same Python type.

  • Added objc.registerStructAlias, a helper function to add a type encoding that should map on an already existing struct type.

  • Use this to ensure that NSRect and CGRect are the same (in the Foundation and Quartz bindings).

  • This version requires Python 2.6 or later, and also supports Python 3.1 or later.

  • BUGFIX: The generic proxy for Python objects now implements -(CFTypeID)_cfTypeID, which should result in less hard to understand Objective-C exceptions.

  • BUGFIX: The metadata file support now checks if the metadata is compatible with information gathered from the Objective-C runtime.

    This ensures that when a native method signature is incompatible with the signature in a metadata file the bridge won’t garble the correct information (and that in turn avoids hard crashes).

  • PyObjC’s support for NSCoding now also works with plain NSArchiver instances, not just with NSKeyedArchiver.

  • (This item is currently only true for python3, need tests for python 2.x)

    NSDictionary now fully implements the dict API, except for the differences not below:

    • NSDictionary doesn’t have the __missing__ hook.

    • NSDictionary always copies keys, which gives slightly different

      semantics from Python.

    • NSDictionary.copy always returns an immutable dictionary, use NSDictionary.mutableCopy to get a mutable dictionary.

    • Instances of NSDictionary cannot be pickled

    NSDictionary implements one important feature that native Python dictionaries don’t: full support for Key-Value Observations. Sadly enough it is not possible to support Key-Value Observation of native Python dictionaries without patching the interpreter.

  • NSSet and NSMutableSet implement the same interface as frozenset and set, except for the differences listed below:

    • NSSet.copy and NSMutableSet.copy always return an immutable

      object, use the mutableCopy method to create a mutable copy.

    • Instances of NSSet cannot be pickled

    • In-place operators are not implemented, which means that aSet |= value will assign a new object to aSet (as if you wrote aSet = aSet | value.

      This is needed because the bridge cannot know if if aSet is mutable, let alone if aSet is a value that you are allowed to mutate by API contracts.

    • It is not possible to subclass NSSet and NSMutableSet in the same way as Python’s set and frozenset classes because the Cocoa classes are class clusters (which means that all instances of NSSet are actually instances of, non-necessarily public, subclasses.

    • Sadly enough set([1,2,3]) == NSSet([1, 2, 3]) evaluates to False, even though the values are equivalent. Reversing the order of the test (NSSet([1, 2, 3]) == set([1,2,3])) results in the expected result.

      This is caused by the way equality tests for sets are implemented in CPython and is not something that can be fixed in PyObjC.

  • BUGFIX: accessing methods through anObject.pyobjc_instancMethods is now safer, before this release this could cause unlimited recursion (although I’m not sure if it was possible to trigger this without other changes in this release).

  • The PyObjC egg now includes the header files that should be used to compile to compile the extensions in the framework wrappers, which makes it a lot easier to access those headers.

  • BUGFIX: The definition for Py_ARG_SIZE_T was incorrect, which causes problems in 64-bit code.

  • Initial port to Python 3.x

    C-style ‘char’ characters and ‘char*’ strings are translated to/from byte strings (‘str’ in Python 2.x, ‘bytes’ in Python 3.x). There is no automatic translation from Unicode strings.

    Objective-C selector names and encoded type strings are byte strings as well.

    NOTE: Python 3 support is pre-alpha at this time: the code compiles but does not pass tests yet. The code also needs to be reviewed to check for python3<->objc integration (dict.keys now returns a view, NSDictionary.keys still returns a basic iterator, …)


    • Implement new style buffer support when depythonifying an array of C structures.

    • Documentation updates

  • The Python 3.x port does not support transparent proxies for ‘FILE*’ “objects” because the file type in Python3 is not implemented on top of the C library stdio.

  • The Python 2.x port has been enhanced to accept Unicode strings in more locations.

  • Implement support for PEP-3118, for both Python 2.x and Python 3.x.

    This means that proxying arrays of basic C types to ObjC can now make use of the extended type information provided by the PEP-3118 API.

    Furthermore it is possible to use memoryview objects with NSData instances, with the limitation that the memoryview must be cleaned up before the currently active autorelease pool is cleared, or the data instance is resized. That’s a result of API restrictions in Apple’s frameworks.

  • The PyObjCTest testsuite now supports version-specific tests: for Python 2.x it will load modules whose name starts with ‘test2_’ and for Python 3.x those starting with ‘test3_’. For both versions it will load test modules whose name starts with ‘test_’ as well.

  • Renamed the assertion functions in PyObjCTools.TestSupport, added assertFoo methods and deprecated the failIfFoo and failUnlessFoo methods (simularly to what’s happening in the stdlib).

  • Added objc.propertiesForClass. This function returns information about properties for a class from the Objective-C runtime. The information does not include information about properties in superclasses.

  • Added objc.object_property. This is class behaves simularly to property, but integrates better with Objective-C code and APIs like Key-Value Observation.

  • Added objc.array_property. This is simular to objc.object_property, but models a list-like object and implements the right Objective-C interfaces for Key-Value Coding/Observations.

  • Added objc.set_property. This is simular to objc.object_property, but models a set-like object and implements the right Objective-C interfaces for Key-Value Coding/Observations.

  • Added objc.dict_property. This is simular to objc.object_property, but models a dict-like object and implements the right Objective-C interfaces for Key-Value Coding/Observations.

  • NOTE: The interfaces of array_property, set_property and dict_property are minimal w.r.t. options for tweaking their behaviour. That will change in future versions of PyObjC.

    Please let us know which hooks would be useful.

  • The documentation is now written using Sphinx.

    NOTE: This is an operation in progress, the documentation needs work to be truly useful.

  • The (undocument) module PyObjCTools.DistUtilsSupport is no longer present.

  • Converting a negative value to an unsigned integer now causes a deprecation warning, this will be a hard error once I update all framework wrapper metadata.

Version 2.2 (2009-11-24)

  • BUGFIX: Ensure PyObjC compiles cleanly with Python 2.6.4.

  • BUGFIX: It is now possible to explicitly define __getitem__ (and other special methods) if your class implements objectForKey::

    class MyObject (NSObject):
        def objectForKey_(self, k):
        def __getitem__(self, k):

    In previous version of PyObjC the implementation of __getitem__ would silently be replaced by a generic one.

  • The default value for the __useKVO__ attribute in class definitions can now be controlled by objc.setUseKVOForSetattr(b). The default is True.

    Note: in previous versions the default was False.

    Note2: the __useKVO__ attribute is an implementation detail and should not be used in normal code.

    This change fixes an issue where KVO failed to detect some changes when those changes were done in Python using attribute access syntax.

  • Wrappers for objc_sync_wait, objc_sync_notify and objc_sync_notifyAll have been removed. These have never been part of the public API and this should therefore not affect existing code.

  • BUGFIX: There was a refcount leak in the code that proxies native code to Python. This causes refcount leaks in user code when a Python class is instantiated from native code, when that class has an initializer written in Python.

    Thanks to Dirk Stoop of Made by Sofa for providing the bugreport that helped fix this issue.

  • objc.recycleAutoreleasePool is now a no-op when a python bundle is loaded in an Objective-C program and the PyObjC’s global release pool gets drained by an outer release pool. This should not affect user programs.

  • BUGFIX: Storing pure python objects in a NSKeyedArchiver archive didn’t full work for all tuples, especially self-recursive tuples.

    The current support for archiving Python objects passes all pickle unittests in Python 2.7.

  • BUGFIX: +new is supposed to return an already retained object (that is, the caller owns a reference). Until now PyObjC has assumed that the return value of +new is an autoreleased value. The same is true for all class methods whose name starts with new.

  • There is initial support for Objective-C blocks, based on the implementation description in the clang repository. Blocks are represented in Python as callable objects. This means you can pass an arbitrary callable when an Objective-C argument is a block, and that when your method accepts a block it will get passed a callable object.

    There are some limitations on the usage of blocks due to lack of introspection in the current implementation of blocks. This has two side-effects:

    • There must be metadata to describe the signature of blocks in PyObjC’s metadata XML files.

    • Block metadata is not retained when a block is stored in an ObjC datastructure, such as an NSArray, and there are no direct references to the block from Python.

  • objc.inject is no longer support. This was code that had no real relation to the rest of PyObjC and was only working in 32-bit mode with little reason to expect that it would ever be ported to 64-bit mode.

  • Move the testsuite from objc.test to PyObjCTest and no longer install the tests.

    The tests are no longer installed because they aren’t needed for day-to-day usage of PyObjC. Furthermore this change will make it possible to copy all of the pyobjc-core “egg” into an application bundle without adding unnecessary files to that bundle.

  • BUGFIX: Storing pure python objects in a NSKeydArchiver archive didn’t work 100% reliably for Python floats. I’ve changed the implementation on for encoding floats a little and now floats do get rounddtripped properly.

    The side effect of this is that archives written by PyObjC 2.2b2 or later cannot always be read by earlier versions (but PyObjC 2.2b2 can read archives created with earlier versions).

  • BUGFIX: Enable building from source with the Python.org binary distribution.

  • BUGFIX: Fix crash when using the animotor proxy feature of CoreAnimation. That is, the following code now works:

    1 app = NSApplication.sharedApplication()
    2 window = NSWindow.alloc().init()
    3 anim = window.animator()
    4 anim.setAlphaValue_(1.0)
  • Improve handling of non-methods in objc.Category:

    • The docstring of a category is now ignored

    • You’ll get an explicit error exception when trying to add and ivar to a class

    • It’s now possible to add class attributes in a category:

      1   class NSObject (objc.Category(NSObject)):
      2       aClassDefault = [ 1, 2, 3 ]
      4       @classmethod
      5       def getDefault(cls):
      6           return cls.aClassDefault
  • Fixed support for FSRef and FSSpec structures.

    • Transparently convert Carbon.File.FSRef and Carbon.File.FSSpec instances to C.

    • The types objc.FSRef and objc.FSSpec are the native PyObjC representation for FSRef and FSSpec structures.

  • Added more magic signature heuristics: the delegate selector for sheets is now automatically recognized, removing the need for the decorator AppHelper.didEndSelector (which will stay present for backward compatibility).

    FIXME: Do the same thing for objc.accessor. Both are a frequent source for errors.

  • Added PyObjC.TestSupport. This is an unsupported module containing useful functionality for testing PyObjC itself.

  • Added free_result attribute to the retval element in metadata files. When this attribute has value 'true' the return value of the C function (or ObjC-method) will be free-ed using the function free(), otherwise the bridge assumes other code is responsible to free the result.

    This is to be used for low-level C API’s that return a pointer to a dynamically allocated array that is to be free-ed by the caller. One example is the function DHCPClientPreferencesCopyApplicationOptions in the SystemConfiguration framework.

  • Added objc.context, which is helpful for dealing with “context” arguments as used by several Cocoa APIs. The context argument must be a number in Python, while you’d prefer to pass in an arbitrary object instead. The objc.context registry allows you to get a context integer for an arbitrary Python object, and retrieve that later on.

    To get the context integer for a Python object:

    ctx = objc.context.register(myValue)

    To unregister the object when you no longer need the context integer:


    To retrieve the Python object given a context integer:

    myValue = objc.context.get(ctx)

    NOTE: This API is particularly handy when using Key-Value Observing, where the context number should be a unique value to make ensure that KVO usage by the superclass doesn’t get confused with your own usage of KVO.

  • PyObjC can now run in 64-bit mode.

    NOTE: 64-bit support is beta quality, that is: all unittests pass, but I haven’t tried running real programs yet and hence there might be issues lurking below the surface.

    NOTE: 64-bit support does not yet work on PPC due to a bug in libffi which prevents catching Objective-C exceptions.

    This requires Leopard (OSX 10.5), earlier version of the OS don’t have a 64-bit Objective-C runtime at all. This currently also requires a copy of python that was build with MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET=10.5.

    Note that class posing (the poseAsClass_ class method) is not supported in 64-bit mode. It is also not possible to create new protocols in 64-bit code. Neither are supported by the 64-bit runtime APIs (that is, it is a restriction in Apple’s Objective-C 2.0 runtime).

  • There now is a custom proxy class for instances of datetime.date and datetime.datetime, which takes away the need to manually convert these instances before using them from Objective-C (such as using an NSDateFormatter)

  • Objective-C classes that support the NSCopying protocol can now be copied using copy.copy as well.

  • OC_PythonArray and OC_PythonDictionary now explicitly implement copyWithZone: and mutableCopyWithZone:, copies will now be Python objects instead of regular NSDictionary instances.

  • Pure Python objects now support the NSCopying protocol.

  • A new decorator: objc.namedselector for overriding the Objective-C selector. Usage:

    1class MyObject (NSObject):
    3    @objc.namedselector("foo:bar:")
    4    def foobar(self, foo, bar):
    5        pass
  • A number of new type signature values were added. These are not present in the Objective-C runtime, but are used to more precisely describe the type of some arguments.

    The new values are:

    • _C_UNICHAR: A “UniChar” value in Objective-C

    • _C_NSBOOL: A “BOOL” value in Objective-C

    • _C_CHAR_AS_INT: A “char” in Objective-C that is used as a number

    • _C_CHAR_AS_TEXT: A “char” in Objective-C that is used as a character

    PyObjC will automatically translate these values into the correct Objective-C type encoding when communicating with the Objective-C runtime, making this change transparent to anyone but Python users.

    NOTE: _C_CHR is of course still supported, with the same semi-schizofrenic behaviour as always.

    NOTE2: The non-standard metadata extensions we used before to indicate that a C short is used as a unicode string are no longer supported.

  • Output arguments are no longer optional. They must be specified both in method implementations and method calls. In PyObjC 2.0 they were optional, but raised a deprecation warning, for backward compatibility with PyObjC 1.x.

    The backward compatibility code was removed because it made code more complicated and actually caused some bugs.

  • In PyObjC 1.x you could redefine an Objective-C class, as long as you redefined it in the same module (such as by reloading a module). That functionality didn’t work in PyObjC 2.0 and is now completely removed because the functionality isn’t supported by the Objective-C 2.0 runtime.

  • Adds custom wrappers for some more Python types:

    • OC_PythonNumber: wraps python numeric types

      This is used instead of NSNumber because we might loose information otherwise (such as when using custom subclasses of int).

    • OC_PythonSet: wraps a python set and is a subclass of NSMutableSet

  • BUGFIX: OC_PythonEnumerator now actually works.

  • BUGFIX: using the @throw syntax one can raise arbitrary objects as exceptions (not just instances of NSException) in Objective-C. All instances of NSObject are now converted to Python exceptions, throwing some other object (such as a C++ exception) will still case a fatal error due to an uncaught exception.

    (SF Bug: 1741095)

  • BUGFIX: repr(CoreFoundation.kCFAllocatorUseContext) now works

    (SF Bug: 1827746)

  • BUGFIX: The wrappers for CoreFoundation types no longer create a new type in the Objective-C runtime, that type wasn’t used anywhere and was an unwanted side-effect of how CoreFoundation types are wrapped.

  • BUGFIX: The docstring for newly defined methods is no longer hidden by PyObjC. That is, given this code:

    1   class MyObject (NSObject):
    2       def doit(self):
    3           "do something"
    4           return 1 + 2

    MyObject.doit.__doc__ now evaluates to "do something", in previous versions of PyObjC the docstring was None.

  • BUGFIX: Fixed calling and implementation methods where one or more of the arguments are defined as arrays, like this:


    There were various issues that caused these to not work correctly in all earlier versions of PyObjC (which wasn’t noticed earlier because Apple’s frameworks don’t use this construction).

  • BUGFIX: correctly select the native implementation of the compatibility routines for the ObjC 2.0 runtime API when running on 10.5 (when compiled for OSX 10.3 or later).

  • BUGFIX: fix a number of compatibility routines (ObjC 2.0 runtime API on OSX 10.4 or earlier).

Version 2.0.1 (included with OSX 10.5.2)

  • BUGFIX: objc.inject works on Leopard (at least on Intel Macs, haven’t tested on PPC).

  • BUGFIX: don’t crash when printing CF objects that are magic cookies.

  • BUGFIX: It is now possible to override respondsToSelector: in Python.

  • Add support for interacting with @synchronized’ blocks in Objective-C.

    The function object_lock(object) is a contextmanager that acquires and releases the @synchronized’ mutex for an object, and can also be used manually.

    That is (as context manager):

    1   from __future__ import with_statement
    3   obj = NSObject.new()
    5   with objc.object_lock(obj):
    6      # Perform work while owning the @synchronize lock
    7      pass

    or (manually):

    1   obj = NSObject.new()
    2   mutex = objc.object_lock(obj)
    3   mutex.lock()
    4   try:
    5       # Perform work while owning the @synchronized lock
    6       pass
    7   finally:
    8       mutex.unlock()

    Note that the first version is slightly saver (see the documentation for with-statements for the details).

Version 2.0 (MacOS X 10.5.0)

  • The basic infrastructure for playing nice in a GC host was added.

    This doesn’t mean that PyObjC now actually plays nice with the ObjC garbage collector, some more development and much more testing is needed for that.

    Even so, the end result is about as good as we have without GC, programs won’t make optimal use of GC because that would require surgery on the Python interpreter itself.

  • The metadata returned by the __metadata__ method is slightly changed to make it more compatible with the XML files.

  • Some of the older metadata attributes, such as isAlloc and doesDonateRef were dropped. isAlloc isn’t needed for anything but a number of now hardcoded methods (+alloc and +allocWithZone:), doesDonateRef is available through the new metadata mechanism.

  • Fix a memory leak in the code that creates the python representation for method lists.

  • Speed up framework loading due to three changes:

    1. Don’t rescan the list of classes unless the framework actually defines new classes.

    2. The metadata loader now implemented in C.

    3. CF wrapper types (e.g. CGContextRef) no longer have methods corresponding to global functions, the speed-hit for calculating these is too large.

  • It is now conveniently possible to create instance variables with a specific type (e.g. without manually making up a encoded type string):

    1 class MyObject (NSObject):
    2     bounds = objc.ivar.NSRect()
    3     done = objc.ivar.bool()
  • Objective-C metaclasses are modelled as Python metaclasses. This brings a major improvement: class methods “just work”(TM):

    1o = NSObject.alloc().init()

    In earlier versions of PyObjC the second call would fail because NSObject.description referred to an unbound instance-method instead of to the class method.

    This change should require little or change to existing code. There’s only two types of code where the new behaviour is incompatible:

    1. Code that introspects the class dictionary to see what methods are available. These will no longer see class methods, but will have to look at the metaclass as well. This affects pydoc(1) as well.

    2. Code that uses unbound instance methods will no pick up class methods in some occasions. Use MyClass.instanceMethodForSelector_ instead of unbound methods, or alternatively access instance methods through MyClass.pyobjc_instanceMethods.

    3. Due to a limitation in the implementation of python’s super class [1] it is not possible to use the super machinery to resolve class methods.

      However, from Foundation import * will replace the builtin super by a subclass that does work correctly for PyObjC programs, therefore this doesn’t affect most PyObjC-using programs.

  • It is now easily possible to tell PyObjC that a Python type should be treated like a builtin sequence type:

    1   import UserList, objc
    3   class MyClass (UserList.UserList):
    4       pass
    6   objc.registerListType(MyClass)
  • And likewise for mapping types using objc.registerMappingType.

  • objc.enableThreading() is gone. It was introduced in ancient times to enable threading in the Python runtime but has been a no-op for ages because the PyObjC enables threading by default now.

  • The unittests can now use the leaks(1) command to check for memory leaks. This slows testing down significantly and is therefore off by default. Enable by setting PYOBJC_WITH_LEAKS to a value in the shell environment before running the tests:

        $ PYOBJC_WITH_LEAKS=1 python setup.py test
    NOTE: the actual value is ignored, as long as there is a value.
  • (BUGFIX): PyObjC was leaking memory when doing scans of the Objective-C method tables

  • (BUGFIX): The code below now raises an error, as it should have done in previous versions but never did:

    1  class MyObject (object):
    2      def updateDescription(self):
    3          self.description = 42
  • PyObjC has been split into several smaller packages: pyobjc-core contains the core bridge and frameworks are wrapped as separate setuptools packages.

  • Objective-C objects now have an implicit attribute named _ which can be used a shortcut for Key-Value-Coding.

    The code fragment below:

    1   o = <Some Objective-C Object>
    2   print o._.myKey
    3   o._.myKey = 44

    is equivalent to:

    1   print o.valueForKey_('myKey')
    2   o.setValue_forKey_(44, 'myKey')

    The former is much nicer to use.

  • Struct wrappers now have a copy method. This method tries to do the right thing when subfields are other struct wrappers (that is, deep-copy them).

  • The metadata system has been revamped and mostly removes the need to write C-code when wrapping frameworks (that includes most of the AppKit and Foundation wrappers as well). The metadata is loaded at runtime from an XML file, whose format is shared between PyObjC and RubyCocoa.

    objc.initFrameworkWrapper can be used to load a framework using these XML metadata files.

    Note: because we now use an XML metadata file the scripts in Scripts/CodeGenerators have been removed: they are no longer needed. Have a look at the project pyobjc-metadata if you want to generate your own metadata.

    Note2: the metadata format is shared with RubyCocoa, although there are currently some slight differences (that is, the PyObjC metadata is slightly richer).

  • PyObjC now has builtin support for CoreFoundation-based types, which is used by the new metadata file support. Note that doesn’t mean we support all of CoreFoundation and other CF-based frameworks, just that the machinery that’s needed for that is present and working.

    This is a backward incompatible change: CF-based types will now be proxied using PyObjC-owned types instead of the ones in MacPython. However, PyObjC will still convert MacPython CF-wrappers to the right native type.

    Another backward compatible change: registerCFSignature has a different signature:

    registerCFSignature(name, encoding, typeId [, tollfreeName]) -> type

    This is needed to capture all information about CF types.

  • This version introduces generic support for callback functions. The metadata mentioned before contains information about the signature for callback functions, the decorator callbackFor converts a plain function to one that can be used as a callback:

    1   @objc.callbackFor(NSArray.sortedArrayUsingFunction_andContext_)
    2   def compare(left, right, context):
    3       if left.key < right.key:
    4           return NSOrderedAscending
    5       elif left.key > right.key:
    6           return NSOrderedDescending
    7       else:
    8           return NSOrderedSame

    The makeCallbackFor callback should be used for callbacks where the callable is stored by the called function and is optional otherwise (such as the example above).

  • The decorator selectorFor can be used to ensure that a method has the right signature to be used as the callback method for a specific method.


    def sheetDidEnd_returnCode_contextInfo_(self, sheet, returnCode, info):
  • PyObjC compiled on Leopard uses the Objective-C 2.0 runtime.

    The compiler on 10.5 still gives warning about usage of deprecated APIs unless compiling for 10.5 or later because of a compatibility layer.

  • GNUstep support has been removed because this has never worked properly, nobody seems interested in fixing that and the internal APIs of PyObjC have changed greatly.

  • Output arguments are treated slightly different. In previous versions you were not allowed to pass values for output arguments.

    This is now deprecated behaviour, you should choose to supply values for all arguments including output arguments (mixing these two styles is not allowed, if you have two output argument you must either supply a value for both of them or neither).

    There are only two acceptable values for output argument:

    • None: pass a non-NULL pointer to the objc function/method

    • objc.NULL: pass a NULL pointer to the objc method.

    The already existing behaviour is the same as passing in None for all output arguments.

    This is most useful for suppressing an NSError value for methods that have an NSError** argument (when you don’t want to look at that value), because generating that object might be expensive.

  • objc.setSignature is deprecated, use the new metadata machinery instead.

  • Opaque types (such as NSZonePointer) are now mutable, which is mostly present to allow framework wrappers to provide a nice OO interface to those types instead of forcing users to use the procedural API.

    None of the current framework wrappers use this feature.

  • Several new methods were added to improve integration with a future version of MacPython: opaque pointer types and NSObject now have a method named __cobject__ that returns a PyCObject which represents the proxied value. Furthermore both opaque pointer types and subclasses of NSObject are now callable and will create the proper proxy object when passed a PyCObject. Note however than the caller is responsible to ensure that the PyCObject value represents a value of the right type.

  • Archiving pure python objects using NSArchiver was already unsupported, we now explicitly raise an exception when users try to do this anyway. It is supported to archive and retrieve simple values: instances of int, long, float, str and unicode.

  • A __del__ or dealloc method can revive objects, which isn’t really supported by Objective-C. We’ll now warn about this, hopefully before the program crashes. The warning is objc.RevivedObjectiveCObjectWarning.

  • Some functions and methods return an instance of objc.varlist. These objects behave a little like tuples, but don’t have a defined length, you are responsible to not peak beyond the end of the actual array.

    The best way to deal with these objects is to convert them to real tuples as soon as possbible (using the as_tuple method). The number of elements in that tuple should be known to you and depends on the API.

    These objects are used in places where objects return an array but the size of that array cannot be described using the bridge metadata. These are mostly arrays whose size depends on the state of an object, or whose size is a function of one or more arguments of the method.

  • There now is a public API for adding new “convenience methods”, that is methods that emulate standard Python methods using Objective-C methods.

    There are two functions for adding new convenience methods:

    • addConvenienceForSelector adds a list of methods to a class when that class has the specified selector:

    addConvenienceForSelector('hash', [
             ('__hash__', lambda self: self.hash()),
    • addConvenienceForClass adds a list of methods to the class with the

      specified name:

    addConvenienceForSelector('NSObject', [
             ('dummy', lambda self: 42 ),

    In both cases the addition is done lazily, the class that will be changed need not be loaded at the time of the call.

  • Fix a long-standing race condition where one could end up with a reference to an already deallocated Objective-C object when the last ObjC reference goes away on one thread and is just “recreated” on a second thread.

  • The ‘name’ and ‘reason’ of an Objective-C exception are now represented as Unicode objects in the Python representation of the exception, instead of as a UTF-8 encoded string.

    The standard Python exception message is still a UTF-8 encoded string, that’s needed to ensure that we can always print the value of the exception message (such as in tracebacks).

Version 1.4.1 (2006)

  • PyObjC now uses setuptools. Setuptools support is fairly minimal at the moment, we expect to move more of the build infrastructure to setuptools and to split PyObjC into smaller eggs.

  • Fix an issue that made is possible to create weakref’s to subclasses of subclasses of Objective-C classes. This was unintentional behaviour, the weakref is to the proxy (see the news for 1.0b1 for more details).

  • Add RoundTransparentWindow and DragItemAround examples in Examples/AppKit.

    Both are ports of Objective-C examples at ADC and were provided by ytrewq1.

  • Fix issue where programs would crash with an badly aligned C-stack on some problems. This issue only affected Intel systems.

  • Remove OC_PythonObject.pythonifyStructTable. This method of wrapping structs was untested and not used in the core distribution. Use objc.createStructType instead.

  • Binaries build on 10.4 also work on 10.3. This means it is no longer necessary to build PyObjC on the lowest version of the OS that you want to run your binaries on. Doing this with python is somewhat of a black art, please test your applications on the lowest version of the OS that you want to support to make sure that this actually works.

Version 1.4 (2006-06-14)

  • Classes whose name starts with and underscore are no longer imported when using objc.loadBundle. They are still available using objc.lookUpClass.

    Methods whose name starts with an underscore are no longer visible when introspecting using dir(), but can still be called.

    These changes were done to make introspection slightly more user-friendly: anything that is now hidden from introspection is most likely not part of a public API.

  • Most of the libffi testsuite is now run using a module that emulates dejagnu.

  • Introduction of a GUI tool to manage custom method signatures (Tools/Signatures). This replaces the find-raw-pointers.py script.

  • Fixed memory leak in OC_PythonObject, this was due to bad reference counting.

  • NSMutableArray.sort now has the same API as list.sort. Due to implementation constraints the key argument results in slower sorting than you’d see with list.sort.

  • Selectors now have a read-only property ‘native_signature’ that contains the untampered signature for the method. This is for use by tools.

  • ‘void*’ arguments are treated like unsigned integers, they are almost always opaque cookies.

  • FILE* arguments are recognized and mostly work correctly. We can’t reliably detect if the file was opened in append mode though.

  • Make it possible to override the KVO methods, like setValue:forKey: and valueForKey: in Python for all levels in the inheritance hierarchy.

  • Fix issues with reference counts for __slots__.

  • Experimental: use -autorelease instead of -release to release values in destructors. This seems to solve at least one memory management issue.

  • A slight complication in the naming rule:

    1. Don’t translate leading underscores in Python to colons in Objective-C, _doFoo_andBar_ in Python will be _doFoo:andBar: in Objective-C.

    2. If a name starts and ends with double underscores don’t modify the name at all when moving from Python to Objective-C, __foobar__ in Python will stay that way in Objective-C.

    These changes fix some minor annoyances with the older scheme. Note that the translation from Objective-C to Python is unmodified and is entirely consistent with the modified rules for translating from Python to Objective-C.

  • Fix for a memory leak in __pyobjc_object__ handling.

Version 1.3.7 (2005-07-06)

  • Added wrappers for embedded DiscRecording frameworks ([ 1224188 ] Fix for DiscRecording framework)

  • Probably working Xcode 2.1 support (for converted Xcode 2.0 projects)

  • Hide List, Object, and Protocol classes from objc.loadBundle to prevent confusion with Python code. They can still be looked up with objc.lookUpClass.

  • Fixed a regression where type signatures for pointers weren’t normalized (fixes uses of NSModalSession, etc.)

  • Fixed a bug with -[NSObject hash] to __hash__, there was a mismatch between integer types.

  • Removed traces of the old Project Builder and Xcode templates in the examples and Foundation initialization code (PYOBJCFRAMEWORKS).

  • Fixed a problem with reference counting in initializers.

  • New TinyURLService example in AppKit that demonstrates how to write a service that transforms URLs into their tinyurl.com equivalents.

  • Ported to macOS on Intel. This is an initial, experimental port. The Intel ABI has not been finalised yet. It is also possible to build fat binaries, that option should not be used in production builds.

  • Support a number of new frameworks:

    • SenTestingKit

      TODO: this framework uses lots of macros (such as STAssertEquals), these have not yet been wrapped/converted.

    • SecurityFoundation

Version 1.3.6 (2005-05-19)

  • Fixed bugs in the ProgressViewPalette example

  • Fixed a bug in the class builder that caused most plugins to break

  • Removed all references to Project Builder

  • macOS 10.2 (Jaguar) no longer supported

Version 1.3.5 (2005-05-18)

  • Importing objc now ensures that Foundation is multi-threaded, previously it only ensured that Python was.

  • New objc.RegisterCFSignature used to register CFTypeRef-like signatures with the runtime.

  • PyObjCTools.Conversion functions now support all property list types with the following conversions:

    • NSData <-> buffer

    • NSDecimalNumber <-> decimal.Decimal (if present)

    • NSDate <-> datetime.datetime

    New toPythonDecimal, fromPythonDecimal functions which convert between NSDecimalNumber and decimal.Decimal using an intermediate string.

    New serializePropertyList and deserializePropertyList functions which serialize (Objective-C) property lists to and from NSData.

  • OC_PythonObject, the proxy for Python objects that do not have an Objective-C superclass and are not otherwise special-cased, now act slightly more like typical Objective-C objects (supporting -isEqual:, -hash, and -compare:). This allows them to work with Key-Value Coding if they are contained by an Objective-C object, among other things.

  • New objc.signature decorator that allows easier specification of objc.selector wrappers for functions when using Python 2.4:

    def methodWithX_andY_(self, x, y):
        return 0
  • PyObjCTools.KeyValueCoding.getKeyPath now supports all of the Array Operators supported by macOS 10.4.

  • Key-Value Coding of Python objects (whether or not using an Objective-C base class) should act like Objective-C now. In previous versions there were inconsistencies with the use of capitalization, the underscore postfix in setters, and Key-Value Observing.

  • The formal protocol list is now complete. A new internal function, objc.protocolsForProcess() enumerates over all mach headers and returns all of the protocols defined in the expected place. This fixes the scenario where an application uses a protocol but does not define any classes that conform to that protocol (i.e. to check plugin conformity). Previously it was not possible to reach these protocols simply by walking over all of the classes.

  • A special value, objc.NULL, may now be passed in the place of ‘in’ and ‘inout’ arguments. This tells the bridge to pass a NULL pointer to the Objective-C method, instead of a pointer to the value. The return value will still be a tuple of the expected size.

  • Some of the new Tiger frameworks now have wrappers:

    • AppleScriptKit

    • Automator

    • CoreData

    • DiscRecording

    • DiscRecordingUI

    • OSAKit

    • Quartz

    • QTKit

    • SyncServices

    • XgridFoundation

    Documentation and tests not yet written.

  • New OutlineEditor example in Examples/CoreData, it is a Python version of the identically named Apple example.

  • The last argument of selectors that end with ‘:error:’ is now assumed to be ‘out’ if its type is an object pointer.

  • More conveniences for list-like and dict-like objects: __reversed__, reverse, pop, remove, fromkeys.

  • OC_PythonDictionary and OC_PythonArray now return NSNull to Objective-C callers as appropriate.

  • New WebKitInterpreter example in Examples/Plugins. Uses the new WebKit Cocoa plugin API available in Safari 1.3 and later to embed a PyInterpreter in the browser.

  • Fixed a CFBundleRef reference counting bug in Foundation._Foundation. The symptom of this is usually a crashing application after having loaded a PyObjC-based plugin into an otherwise Objective-C app.

  • New PyObjCTools.AppHelper functions: callAfter and callLater, conveniences for calling Python functions on the main thread as soon as possible, or after a delay.

  • Twisted examples changed to use threadedselectreactor instead of cfreactor. cfreactor is deprecated. Needs Twisted newer than 2.0 (svn r13575 or later).

  • objc.inject now injects on main thread by default, and takes an optional third useMainThread argument to change this behavior. This is a complete rewrite which should be correct, stable, Tiger compatible, and synchronized with mach_* 1.1.

  • Removed an NSAutoreleasePool category hack that has been deprecated for quite some time.

  • New objc.removeAutoreleasePool function that will remove PyObjC’s global NSAutoreleasePool, which may be useful for plugins.

  • Fixed bug in the NSBundle hack that caused a NULL pointer dereference if looking up a non-existent class using NSBundle API.

  • Added OC_PythonUnicode and OC_PythonString classes that preserve the identity of str and unicode objects across the bridge. The bridge for str now uses the default encoding of NSString, rather than sys.getdefaultencoding() from Python. For macOS, this is typically MacRoman. The reason for this is that not all Python str instances could cross the bridge at all previously. objc.setStrBridgeEnabled(False) will still trigger warnings, if you are attempting to track down an encoding bug. However, the symptoms of the bug will be incorrectly encoded text, not an exception.

  • New Xcode project template “PyObjC Mixed Application” that is a py2app based Python application that loads an Objective-C plug-in built as a separate target.

  • New py2app based Xcode templates “PyObjC Application” and “PyObjC Document-based Application”, these replace the older “Cocoa-Python Application” and “Cocoa-Python Document-based Application” respectively.

  • New InjectBrowser example in Examples/Inject that demonstrates injection of the ClassBrowser example into another application using objc.inject.

  • NSData and NSMutableData instances now support the Python buffer protocol.

  • NSData instances now support a convenience API that allow them to act like a buffer instance for str() and slicing.

  • Objects that support the Python buffer protocol, such as buffer and array.array (but not str or unicode) are now bridged as NSData subclasses.

Version 1.3 (2005-03-31)

  • New objc.pyobjc_id function that returns a the id of the underlying NSObject as an integer. (Python wrapper objects are often made on the fly, meaning id(obj) is not constant during the lifetime of the object.)

  • The bridge now maintains object identity across the bridge in both directions. Previous versions of the bridge only did this when bridging from Objective-C to Python.

    Exceptions: NSString and NSNumber do not have unique proxies. These types are converted to subclasses of Python types as appropriate, so they can not have unique proxies. The identity of the original Objective-C object is maintained by these subclasses, but there may be many Python “value proxies” for a single Objective-C object.

    Any Python object that is proxied using the __pyobjc_object__ interface will only get a unique proxy if the __pyobjc_object__ method implements that feature.

  • New objc.protocolsForClass function that returns a list of protocols that the class directly claims to conform to.

  • PyObjC classes can now declare that they implement formal protocols, for example:

    class MyLockingClass(NSObject, objc.protocolNamed('NSLocking')):
        # implementation

    It is also possible to define new protocols:

    MyProtocol = objc.formal_protocol("MyProtocol", None, [
     selector(None, selector='mymethod', signature='v@:'),

    All formal protocols are instances of objc.formal_protocol.

  • PyObjCTools.KeyValueCoding has a new kvc class that allows Pythonic Key-Value Coding.

    • __getitem__ is mapped to valueForKeyPath:

    • __setitem__ is mapped to setValue:forKeyPath:

    • __getattr__ is mapped to valueForKey:

    • __setattr__ is mapped to setValue:forKey:

    The kvc class uses __pyobjc_object__, so it may cross the bridge as the wrapped object.

  • NSNumber instances are bridged to a float, long, or int subclass that uses __pyobjc_object__. NSDecimal is converted to NSDecimalNumber when used as an object, NSDecimalNumber is not bridged to NSDecimal because the latter is a mutable type.

  • The Python to Objective-C bridge now looks for a __pyobjc_object__ attribute to get a PyObjC object from a Python object.

  • New IDNSnitch example in Inject that demonstrates how to write an monitor for the launch of another application, use objc.inject to load code into a target process, and override the implementation of an existing method but still call back into the original implementation (method swizzling).

  • objc.IMP should do the right thing now. This type is returned by +[NSObject methodForSelector:] and +[NSObject instanceMethodForSelector:]

  • New ToDos example in CocoaBindings that demonstrates how to use two array controllers for the same data, and how to use value transformers to alter the color of text. Originally from “Cocoa Bindings Examples and Hints”, converted to PyObjC by u.fiedler.

  • New Bookmarks example in CocoaBindings that demonstrates how to subclass NSArrayController to implement the NSTableView delegate drag and drop protocol, including copying of objects between documents and accepting URL drops from other applications. Also demonstrates re-ordering of the content array. Originally from “Cocoa Bindings Examples and Hints”, converted to PyObjC by u.fiedler.

  • New FilteringController example in CocoaBindings that demonstrates how to subclass NSArrayController to implement filtering of a NSTableView. Also demonstrates the use of indexed accessors. Originally from “Cocoa Bindings Examples and Hints”, converted to PyObjC by u.fiedler.

  • New ControlledPreferences example in CocoaBindings that demonstrates how to use Cocoa Bindings to simplify storing and retrieving user preferences. Originally from “Cocoa Bindings Examples and Hints”, converted to PyObjC by u.fiedler.

  • New TemperatureTransformer example in CocoaBindings that demonstrates how to use NSValueTransfomers with PyObjC. Based on Apple’s “Cocoa: Value Transformers” documentation, converted to PyObjC by u.fiedler.

  • New CurrencyConvBindings example in CocoaBindings that demonstrates a Cocoa Bindings enabled version of the CurrencyConverter example. Converted to PyObjC by u.fiedler from the example in Apple’s “Introduction to Developing Cocoa Applications Using Bindings”.

  • New ManualBindings example in CocoaBindings that demonstrates how to develop programmatic bindings from a PyObjC application. Converted to PyObjC by u.fiedler from the “Cocoa Bindings and Hints” example of the same name.

  • New HotKeyPython example in AppKit that demonstrates how to use Carbon global hot keys from a PyObjC application. Also demonstrates how to use a NSApplication subclass.

  • Key-Value Observing support is now automatic in Python classes that descend from NSObject, unless they implement a custom willChangeValueForKey:, didChangeValueForKey:, or __useKVO__ is not True. This allows self.foo = 1 to automatically trigger notifications. This works in all cases, whether foo is a property, ivar, or just in the __dict__.

  • New Inject folder in Examples, with an InjectInterpreter example that will inject a GUI Python interpreter into any process.

  • New objc.inject() function for macOS 10.3 and later, allows an arbitrary bundle to be loaded into another process using mach_inject.

  • objc.classAddMethods now recognizes and supports classmethods.

  • GC is now correctly implemented for struct wrappers.

  • The NSNumber bridge has been removed, now you will get NSNumber instances across the bridge instead of a Python representation.

  • PyObjCTools.AppHelper.runEventLoop() will now bring your application to the front at startup when using pdb mode for convenience.

  • objc.loadBundle() no longer filters the class list. This solves a few potential issues and shaves off about 1/3rd of the overhead of python -c "import AppKit".

  • PyObjCTools.AppHelper.runEventLoop() no longer breaks on pure Objective-C exceptions. Most exceptions of this variety are more like warnings, and there is nothing that can be done them anyway.

  • PyObjCTools.AppHelper.runEventLoop() now installs the interrupt handler and verbose exception logging when using pdb, either explicitly or by the USE_PDB environment variable.

  • There is now a fast path for the NSString/unicode bridge when Py_UNICODE_SIZE is 2. This is the default setting for Python.

  • The default selector signature will have a void return value unless a “return” statement with an argument is used in the bytecode. In that case, it will default to an object return value.

  • __bundle_hack__ is no longer necessary, py2app now sets a different environment variable to the current plugin during execution, and a hack is installed to NSBundle so that classes may respond to requests for their bundle with the +bundleForClass method. The class builder adds a default implementation of this to Python classes if this environment variable is set.

  • Added objc.currentBundle(), which is equivalent to NSBundle.mainBundle() except after loading a plug-in. Makes it easier to load nib files.

  • PyObjCTools.NibClassBuilder.extractClasses() now uses objc.currentBundle() instead of NSBundle.mainBundle(). This makes plugins less of a hassle to develop and allows identical code to be used for application or plugin development.

  • objc.registerPlugin() and objc.pluginBundle() are now deprecated as they are no longer useful.

  • It is now possible to subclass a class that implements copyWithZone: without setting __slots__ to ().

  • It is now possible to override dealloc. It is still possible to define __del__.

  • As an experimental feature it is also possible to override retain and release. Note it almost never a good idea to do this (even when you’re programming in Objective-C and much more so in Python).

  • poseAsClass: can be used, although it is not very useful in python, use categories instead.

    A major issue with poseAsClass: is that existing references to the old version of the class won’t be changed to point to the new class.

  • It is now possible to access all instance variables of a class using the functions objc.listInstanceVariables(aClassOrInstance), objc.getInstanceVariable(obj, name) and objc.setInstanceVariable(obj, name, value [, updateRefCount]).

    The last argument of setInstanceVariable is required when the instance variable is an object. If it is true the bridge will update reference counts, otherwise it won’t.

  • All wrappers for opaque pointers (such as NSZone*) now have the same interface and share a single implementation. This decreases code-size and makes it easier to add new wrappers. A new feature is a __typestr__ attribute on the type object, this contains the encoded Objective-C type of the pointer.

    A function for creating new wrappers is exposed to python, as objc.createOpaquePointerType(name, typestr, doc). The same function is also exposed in the C-API.

  • Wrappers for C-structs how have a __typestr__ attribute on their type. This attribute contains the encoded Objective-C type of the struct.

    The default __init__ for struct-wrappers now initializes fields with an appropriate default value, instead of None.

    New wrappers can now be created from Python using the function objc.createStructType(name, typestr, fieldnames, doc). The same function is also exposed in the C API (and has been for a while).

Version 1.2 (2004-12-29)

  • PyObjCTools.AppHelper.stopEventLoop will attempt to stop the current NSRunLoop (if started by runConsoleEventLoop) or terminate the current NSApplication (which may or may not have been started by runEventLoop).

  • This version no longer support Python 2.2. Python 2.3 or later is required.

  • It is now possible to use reload on modules containing Objective-C classes.

  • objc.loadBundle now returns bundle we just loaded.

  • Added objc.loadBundleVariables and objc.loadBundleFunctions, two functions for reading global variables and functions from a bundle.

  • objc.runtime will now raise AttributeError instead of objc.nosuchclass_error when a class is not found.

  • objc.Category can be used to define categories on existing classes:

    class NSObject (objc.Category(NSObject)):
        def myMethod(self):

    This adds method myMethod to class NSObject.

  • py2app is now used for all Example scripts and is the recommended method for creating PyObjC applications.

  • Proxies of dict, list, and tuple now respect the invariant that you should get an identical instance if you ask for the same thing twice and the collection has not been mutated. This fixes some problems with binary plist serialization, and potentially some edge cases elsewhere.

  • There is now a __bundle_hack__ class attribute that will cause the PyObjC class builder to use a statically allocated class wrapper if one is available via certain environment variables. This functionality is used to enable +[NSBundle bundleForClass:] to work for exactly one class from a py2app-created plugin bundle.

  • We now have a working Interface Builder palette example due to __bundle__hack__.

  • bool(NSNull.null()) is now false.

  • setup.py supports several new commands:


    builds libffi (used by build_ext)


    builds html documentation from ReST source


    creates a disk image with the binary installer


    creates a binary installer


    runs unit test suite (replaces Scripts/runPyObjCTests and Scripts/runalltests)

  • PyObjCStrBridgeWarning can now be generated when Python str objects cross the bridge by calling objc.setStrBridgeEnabled(False). It is HIGHLY recommended that your application never send str objects over the bridge, as it is likely to cause problems due to the required coercion to unicode.

  • The coercion bridge from Python to Objective-C instances can now be augmented from Python as it is exposed by OC_PythonObject. See objc._bridges. This is how the str -> unicode -> NSString bridge with optional warnings is implemented.

  • The coercion bridge between Python objects and Objective-C structures can now be augmented from Python as it is exposed by OC_PythonObject. See objc._bridges. This is how the Carbon.File.FSRef <-> '{FSRef=[80c]}' structure bridge is implemented.

  • Extension modules such as _objc, _AppKit, etc. are now inside packages as objc._objc, AppKit._AppKit, etc. They should never be used directly, so this should not break user code.

Version 1.1 (2004-05-30)

  • KVO now actually works from Python without using nasty hacks.

  • Added Xcode template for document-based applications

Version 1.1b2 (2004-04-11)

  • More fine-grained multi-threading support

  • Xcode templates use a smarter embedded main program

  • Add support for WebObjects 4.5 (a one-line patch!)

  • Add a PackageManager clone to the Examples directory

  • Add better support for NSProxy

    This makes it possible to use at Distributed Objects, although this feature has not received much testing

  • Function ‘objc.protocolNamed’ is the Python equivalent of the @protocol expression in Objective-C.

  • Add several new examples

Version 1.1b1 (2004-02-20)

  • Fixes some regressions in 1.1 w.r.t. 1.0

  • Add Xcode templates for python files

    You can now select a new python file in the ‘add file…’ dialog in Xcode

  • Fix installer for Panther: the 1.1a0 version didn’t behave correctly

  • There is now an easier way to define methods that conform to the expectations of Cocoa bindings:

    class MyClass (NSObject):
       def setSomething_(self, value):
       def something(self):
           return "something!"

    It is not necessary to use objc.accessor when overriding an existing accessor method.

Version 1.1a0 (2004-02-02)

  • Objective-C structs can now be wrapped using struct-like types. This has been used to implement wrapper types for NSPoint, NSSize, NSRange and NSRect in Foundation and NSAffineTransformStruct in AppKit.

    This means you can now access the x-coordinate of a point as aPoint.x, accessing aPoint[0] is still supported for compatibility with older versions of PyObjC.

    It is still allowed to use tuples, or other sequences, to represent Objective-C structs.

    NOTE: This has two side-effects that may require changes in your programs: the values of the types mentioned above are no longer immutable and cannot be used as keys in dicts or elements in sets. Another side-effect is that a pickle containing these values created using this version of PyObjC cannot be unpickled on older versions of PyObjC.

  • This version adds support for NSDecimal. This is a fixed-point type defined in Cocoa.

  • NSDecimalNumbers are no longer converted to floats, that would loose information.

  • If an Objective-C method name is a Python keyword you can now access it by appending two underscores to its name, e.g. someObject.class__().

    The same is true for defining methods, if you define a method raise__ in a subclass of NSObject it will registered with the runtime as raise.

    NOTE: Currently only class and raise are treated like this, because those are the only Python keywords that are actually used as Objective-C method names.

  • Experimental support for instanceMethodForSelector: and methodForSelector:. This support is not 100% stable, and might change in the future.

  • Backward incompatible change: class methods are no longer callable through the instances.

  • Integrates full support for MacOS X 10.3 (aka Panther)

  • Adds a convenience/wrapper module for SecurityInterface

  • It is now safe to call from Objective-C to Python in arbitrary threads, but only when using Python 2.3 or later.

  • Fixes some issues with passing structs between Python and Objective-C.

  • Uses the Panther version of NSKeyValueCoding, the Jaguar version is still supported.

  • method updateNSString of objc.pyobjc_unicode is deprecated, use create a new unicode object using unicode(mutableStringInstance) instead.

  • NSAppleEventDescriptor bridged to Carbon.AE

  • LibFFI is used more aggressivly, this should have no user-visible effects other than fixing a bug related to key-value observing.

  • Adds a number of new Examples:

    • OpenGLDemo

      Shows how to use OpenGL with PyObjC

    • SillyBallsSaver

      Shows how to write a screensaver in Python. Requires a framework install of Python (that is, MacOS X 10.3 or MacPython 2.3 on MacOS X 10.2).

    • Twisted/WebServicesTool

      Shows how to integrate Twisted (1.1 or later) with Cocoa, it is a refactor of the WebServicesTool example that is made much simpler by using Twisted.

    • Twisted/WebServicesTool-ControllerLayer

      Shows how to integrate Twisted (1.1 or later) with Cocoa, it is a refactor of the WebServicesTool example that is made much simpler by using Twisted as it does not need threads. This one also uses NSController and therefore requires MacOS X 10.3.

Version 1.0 (2003-09-21)

  • This version includes a new version of libffi that properly deals with complex types on MacOS X.

Version 1.0rc3 (2003-09-14)

  • 1.0rc2 didn’t include the nibclassbuilder script

  • Fix bug in NSRectFillList

Version 1.0rc2 (2003-09-10)

  • Fix a number of bugs found in 1.0rc1.

Version 1.0rc1 (2003-08-10)

  • Better support for the NSKeyValueCoding protocol. The module PyObjCTools.KeyValueCoding provides a python interface that makes it possible to use key-value coding with python objects as well as Objective-C objects. Key-Value Coding also works as one would expect with Python objects when accessing them from Objective-C (both for plain Python objects and Python/Objective-C hybrid objects).

  • objc.pyobjc_unicode objects are now pickled as unicode objects, previously the couldn’t be pickled or were pickled as incomplete objects (protocol version 2).

  • Pickling of ObjC objects never worked, we now explicitly throw an exception if you try to pickle one: pickle protocol version 2 silently wrote the incomplete state of objects to the pickle.

  • The default repr() of ObjC objects is now the result of a call to the description method. This method is not called for uninitialized objects, because that might crash the interpreter; we use a default implementation in that case.

  • A minor change to the conversion rule for methods with output arguments (pointers to values in ObjC, where the method will write through the pointer). If the method has ‘void’ as its return type, we used to return a tuple where the first value is always None. This first element is no longer included, furthermore if the method has only 1 output argument we no longer return a tuple but return the output value directly (again only if the method has ‘void’ as its return type).

    This is a backward incompatible change, but there are not many of such methods.

  • Another backward incompatible change is a minor cleanup of the names in the objc module. The most significant of these is the change from recycle_autorelease_pool to recycleAutoreleasePool. The other changed names are internal to the bridge and should not be used in other code.

  • The interface of Foundation.NSFillRects changed, it now has an interface that is consistent with the rest of the bridge.

Version 1.0b1 (2003-07-05)

  • More tutorials

    Two new tutorials were added: ‘Adding Python code to an existing ObjC application’ and ‘Understanding existing PyObjC examples’. The former explains how you can use Python to add new functionality to an already existing Objective-C application, the latter explains how to understand PyObjC programs written by other people.

  • More examples

    Three examples were added: DotView, ClassBrowser and PythonBrowser, respectively showing the use of a custom NSView, NSBrowser and NSOutlineView. PythonBrowser is reusable, making it trivial to add an object browser to your application.

  • Support for MacOS X 10.1

    It is now possible to build PyObjC on MacOS X 10.1, with full access to the Cocoa API’s on that platform.

    Note: The port to MacOS X 10.1 is not as well supported as the 10.2 port. The developers do not have full-time access to a MacOS X 10.1 system.

  • Support for the WebKit framework, included with Safari 1.0.

    If you build PyObjC from source you will have to build on a system that has the WebKit SDK installed to make use of this. Note that the additional functionality will only be usable on systems that have Safari 1.0 installed, however as long as you don’t use the additional functionality it is safe to run a ‘WebKit-enabled’ PyObjC on systems without Safari 1.0.

  • It is no longer necessary to specify which protocols are implemented by

    a class, this information is automatically deduced from the list of implemented methods. You’ll still a runtime error if you implement some methods of a protocol and one of the unimplemented methods is required.

  • Support for “toll-free bridging” of Carbon.CF types to Objective-C objects.

    It is now possible to use instances of Carbon.CF types in places where Objective-C objects are expected. And to explicitly convert between the two.

    Note: this requires Python 2.3.

  • Better integration with MacPython 2.3:

    • NSMovie.initWithMovie_ and NSMovie.QTMovie now use QT.Movie objects instead of generic pointer wrappers.

    • NSWindow.initWithWindowRef_ and Window.windowRef now use Carbon.Window objects instead of generic pointer wrappers.

    • Methods returning CoreFoundation objects will return MacPython objects, and likewise, methods with CoreFoundation arguments will accept MacPython objects.

  • It is now possible to write plugin bundles, such as preference panes for use in System Preferences, in Python. See Examples/PrefPanes for an example of this feature.

  • The methods pyobjcPopPool and pyobjcPushPool of NSAutoreleasePool are deprecated. These were introduced when PyObjC did not yet support the usual method for creating autorelease pools and are no longer necessary.

  • Improved unittests, greatly increasing the confidence in the correctness of the bridge.

  • All support for non-FFI builds has been removed.

  • Object state is completely stored in the Objective-C object. This has no user-visible effects, but makes the implementation a lot easier to comprehend and maintain.

  • As part of the previous item we also fixed a bug that allowed addition of attributes to Objective-C objects. This was never the intention and had very odd semantics. Pure Objective-C objects not longer have a __dict__.

  • Weakrefs are no longer used in the implementation of the bridge. Because the weakrefs to proxy objects isn’t very useful the entire feature has been removed: It is no longer possible to create weakrefs to Objective-C objects.

    NOTE: You could create weakrefs in previous versions, but those would expire as soon as the last reference from Python died, not when the Objective-C object died, therefore code that uses weakrefs to Objective-C objects is almost certainly incorrect.

  • Added support for custom conversion for pointer types. The end result is that we support more Cocoa APIs without special mappings.

  • The generator scripts are automatically called when building PyObjC. This should make it easier to support multiple versions of MacOS X.

Version 0.9 (May-02-2003)

  • This version includes numerous bugfixes and improvements.

  • The module AppKit.NibClassBuilder has been moved to the package PyObjCTools.

  • Usage of libFFI (https://sourceware.org/libffi/) is now mandatory. The setup.py gives the impression that it isn’t, but we do not support non-FFI builds.

  • We actually have some documentation, more will be added in future releases.

  • There are more Project Builder templates (see ‘Project Templates’).

  • The InterfaceBuilder, PreferencePanes and ScreenSaver frameworks have been wrapped.

  • Management of reference counts is now completely automatic, it is no longer necessary to manually compensate for the higher reference count of objects returned by the alloc, copy and copyWithZone: class methods.

  • Various function and keyword arguments have been renamed for a better integration with Cocoa. A partial list is of the changed names is:

    objc.lookup_class -> objc.lookUpClass
    objc.selector arguments/attributes:
        is_initializer -> isInitializer
        is_allocator -> isAlloc
        donates_ref -> doesDonateReference
        is_required -> isRequired
        class_method -> isClassMethod
        defining_class -> definingClass
        returns_self -> returnsSelf
        argument_types -> argumentTypes
        return_type -> returnType
    objc.get_class_list -> objc.getClassList
  • On Python 2.2, objc.YES and objc.NO are instances of a private boolean type, on Python 2.3 these are instances of the builtin type bool.

  • Because we now use libFFI a large amount of code could be disabled. The binaries are therefore much smaller, while we can now forward messages with arbitrary signatures (not limited to those we thought of while generating the static proxies that were used in 0.8)

  • Better support for APIs that use byte arrays are arguments or return values. Specifically, the developer can now manipulate bitmaps directly via the NSBitmapImageRep class, work with binary data through the NSData class, and very quickly draw points and rects via NSRectFillList()

  • We added a subclass of unicode that is used to proxy NSString values. This makes it easily possible to use NSString values with Python APIs, while at the same time allowing access to the full power of NSString.

Version 0.8 (Dec-10-2002)

  • GNUStep support has been removed for lack of support. Volunteers needed.

  • Subclassing Objective-C classes from Python, including the addition of instance variables (like ‘IBOutlet’s)

  • Generic support for pass-by-reference arguments

  • More complete Cocoa package, including wrappers for a number of C functions, enumerated types, and globals.

  • More example code

  • Objective-C mappings and sequences can be accessed using the normal python methods for accessing mappings and sequences (e.g. subscripting works as expected)

  • Documentation: See the directory ‘docs’

  • Can build standalone Cocoa applications based entirely on Python without requiring that user installs anything extra (requires 10.2).

  • Better packaging and wrapper construction tools (borrowed from MacPython).

  • An installer package.

  • Support for Project Builder based Cocoa-Python projects.

  • Unit tests.

Version 2002-01-30 (January 30, 2002)

  • Version bumped to 0.6.1 ( __version__ is now a PyString )

  • Will now build for Python 2.2

  • added Cocoa package with Foundation.py and AppKit.py wrappers.

  • HelloWorld.py in Examples

  • builds with -g flag for debugging. -v option will dump log of message sends to /tmp file.

  • Fixed one major runtime bug: added ISCLASS test before isKindOfClass - without check, it crashes on sends to abstract classes like NSProxy.

  • There are still problems with Delegates and Notifications.

Version 2001-03-17 (March 17, 2001)

  • moved to using distutils setup.py (requires small patch to distutils that has been submitted against python 2.1b1)

Version 2000-11-14 (November 14, 2000)

  • GNU_RUNTIME is likely completely broken

  • Compiles on macOS Server (python 2.0)

  • Compiles on macOS (python 2.0)

  • Works as either a dynamically loadable module or statically built into a python executable

  • Requires a modified makesetup to work [patches have been sent to SourceForge.net’s Python project].

  • Supports NSAutoReleasepool.

  • Some pre-OSX stuff removed; references to old APIs, etc… (but nowhere near clean)

Version 0.55, 18 August 1998

  • Here again, supporting GNU_RUNTIME and GNUstep Base! On my new Linux box I can finally test the module against them: I installed the latest snapshot of gstep-core, that contains the base library too. Given a sane GNUstep env (GNUSTEP_XXX env vars), you should be able to build a static ObjC-ized interpreter by:

    o Adjusting Setup, commenting out NeXT definition and enabling GNU
    o make -f Makefile.pre.in boot
    o make static

Version 0.54, 24 March 1998

  • OC_Pasteboard.[hm], OC_Stream.[mh] and ObjCStreams.m are definitively gone.

  • OC_PythonObject derives from NSProxy.

Version 0.53, 4 January 1998

  • Tons of changes, retargeting the core functionality around the OpenSTEP API. This release basically matches the previous one in terms of functionalities, but is should be closer to GNUstep.

  • OC_Streams and OC_Pasteboard aren’t supported, I’ve not yet decided if they are needed anymore.

  • Updated LittleButtonedWindow demo.

Version 0.47, 29 October 1996

  • Misc/Makefile.pre.in automatically sets TARGET to pyobjc.

  • ObjC.m split to ObjCObject.m ObjCMethod.m ObjCPointer.m ObjCRuntime.m.

  • New (almost invisible) types: ObjCSequenceObject and ObjCMappingObject; this to implement sequence and mapping syntax (several mapping methods have stub implementation).

  • OC_Pasteboard class is gone. Its functionalities are now in a category of Pasteboard/NSPasteboard.

  • Better methods doc.

  • PyArg_ParseTuple format strings contain arguments names.

  • OC_Streams are mapped to ObjCStreams by pythonify_c_value and its counterpart.

Version 0.46, 18 October 1996

  • OC_Stream is now a subclass of NSData under Foundation.

  • New Objective-C class: OC_Pasteboard. Use it instead of Pasteboard/ NSPasteboard.

  • New Objective-C class: OC_PythonBundle. Use it instead of NXBundle/NSBundle. The ShellText demo has been upgraded to use it, and now you can run it directly from the WorkSpace.

  • OC_Python.[hm] aren’t in the package anymore.

  • Setup.in directives changed again, due to OC_Python.m dropping.

Version 0.45, 14 October 1996

  • Double syntax: to make it easier for us to test and choose the better candidate, the only one that will be present in the final 1.0 release. Keeping both would result in a speed penalty.

  • Revisited streams, in particular GNUstep support.

Version 0.44, 9 October 1996

  • Integers are now accepted too where floats or doubles are expected.

  • New method: ObjC.make_pointer (1) returns an ObjCPointer containing ((void *) 1).

Version 0.43, 7 October 1996

  • Completed ObjCStream implementation. There is now a new module, ObjCStreams which is automatically loaded by ObjC. You can access it as ObjC.streams.

  • Manual split in three parts: libPyObjC.tex with the chapter intro, libObjC.tex describing the main module, libObjCStreams.tex explains the stream facilities.

Version 0.42, 4 October 1996

  • You can pass initialization arguments when using the Class() syntax. You select the right initializer selector with the init keyword parameter.

  • First cut on ObjCStream objects. Thanx to Bill Bumgarner for motivations.

  • New demo ShellText, to test above points.

Version 0.41, 2 October 1996

  • Revised error messages: for arguments type mismatch they show the ObjC type expected.

  • When a method returns a pointer to something, it gets translated as an ObjCPointer object, not the pythonified pointed value. When a method expects a pointer argument, it accepts such an object as well.

  • New demo: Fred. To halt it, suspend the Python process with ^Z then kill it ;-).

  • Setup.in directives changed. See the new file Modules/Setup.PyObjC.in

  • Distributed as a standalone package. Special thanks to Bill Bumgarner.

Version 0.4, 27 September 1996

  • Now handles methods returning doubles or floats.

  • ObjCRuntime responds to .sel_is_mapped().

Version 0.31, 26 September 1996

  • It’s now possible to use a different strategy to map ObjC method names to Python ones. Sooner or later we should decide the one to go, and drop the other. For details, see comments on PYTHONIFY_WITH_DOUBLE_UNDERSCORE in objc_support.h.

  • Manual section.

  • ObjC.runtime.__dict__ added.

  • ObjC.runtime.kind added.

Version 0.3, 20 September 1996

  • No user visible changes, just a little effort towards GNU_RUNTIME support.

Version 0.2, 16 September 1996

  • Accepts a struct.pack() string for pointer arguments, but…

  • … New methods on ObjCMethod: .pack_argument and .unpack_argument: these should be used whenever an ObjC method expects a passed-by-reference argument; for example, on NeXTSTEP [View getFrame:] expects a pointer to an NXRect structure, that it will fill with the current frame of the view: in this case you should use something similar to:

    framep = aView.getFrame__.pack_argument (0)
    aView.getFrame__ (framep)
    frame = aView.getFrame__.unpack_argument (0, framep)

Version 0.1, 13 September 1996

  • Correctly handle pointer arguments.

  • New syntax to get a class: ObjC.runtime.NameOfClass

  • New syntax aliasing .new(): SomeClass()

  • New Demo: LittleButtonedWindow, that tests points above.

  • What follow is the recipe to get PyObjC dynamically loadable on NeXTSTEP:

    • apply the patch in Misc/INSTALL.PyObjC to Python/importdl.c

    • modify Python/Makefile adding the switch -ObjC to the importdl.o build rule:

      importdl.o:   importdl.c
        $(CC) -ObjC -c $(CFLAGS) -I$(DLINCLDIR) $(srcdir)/importdl.c
    • modify Modules/Setup moving the PyObjC entry suggested above AFTER *shared*, and remove -u libNeXT_s -lNeXT_s from it.

    • run make: this will update various files, in particular Modules/Makefile.

    • modify Modules/Makefile adding -u libNeXT_s -lNeXT_s to SYSLIBS:

      SYSLIBS=      $(LIBM) $(LIBC) -u libNeXT_s -lNeXT_s
    • run make again